Articles

Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze

Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze

Family

Verbenaceae

Synonyms

C. siphonanthus R.Br., C. fortunatum Blume ex Hassk.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Ganja ganja, penatoh.
Indonesia Genje (Sundanese), sekar petak (Javanese), ringgo dipo (Palembang).
Thailand Thao yaai mom (Central), phayaa raak dieo (Peninsular), leng chon tai (Northern).
Vietnam ng[oj]c n[uwx] [aas]n d[ooj].

Geographical Distributions

Clerodendrum indicum is a native to India and Nepal, eastward to Burma (Myanmar), southern China, Indo-China, Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia; naturalised in Indonesia, Madagascar, southern USA, West Indies and northern South America.

 

Description

C. indicum is a shrub or treelet that can reach up to measure 3 m tall. It is sometimes suffrutescent or even herbaceous and stoloniferous. The stems are usually very straight or arching, mostly unbranched, hollow and annulate nodes (except the younger ones).

The leaves are linear-lance-shaped to oblanceolate, measuring 7.5-23 cm x 0.7-5.5 cm, attenuate to acute base, acute or acuminate apex, mostly entire, hairless on both surfaces and with measure 0.3-0.8 cm long sessile or petiole. The axillary cymes are solitary or whorled, measure 4-6 cm long and with 3-7-flowered. The terminal panicle is up to measure 45 cm x 25 cm and composed of 3-12 whorls of cymes. The sepal is very broadly bell-shaped, measuring 5-7 mm long tube and deeply 5-lobed. The lobes are measure 6-10 mm long. The green or red petal is hypocrateriform, with long tube and slender. It is measuring 7.5-14 cm long, measuring 0.8-1.5 cm long lobes, white to yellow in colour, showy but not fragrant. The purple stamens are long exserted. The fruiting sepal is accrescent to measure 3 cm in diametre. It is red to purple in colour.

The drupe is measure 1-1.3 cm in diametre. It is bright green that turns to blue-black or reddish-black in colour.

 

Ecology / Cultivation

C. indicum easily escapes cultivation through its stolons. In Java cultivated from sea-level up to 1200 m altitude; naturalised in grassy, sunny or slightly shaded localities near human settlements from sea-level up to 500 m altitude.

 

Line Drawing / Photograph

Clerodendrum_indicum

References

    1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12 (2): Medicinal and poisonous plants.