Articles

Gunnera macrophylla Blume

Last updated: 12 June 2015

Scientific Name

Gunnera macrophylla Blume

Synonyms

Gunnera erosa Blume [1]

Vernacular Name

Indonesia Hariyang gede [2], tarate gunung (Sundanese);  sukmadiluwih (Javanese) [3]
Philippines Balai, baloi, debit (Igorot, Bontok) [2]

Geographical Distributions

Gunnera macrophylla occurs in mountainous areas of Sumatra, Java, Borneo (Sabah), the Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. [2]

G. macrophylla can be found in wet or damp locations in the mountains, often gregarious, mostly on open or lightly-shaded sites in disturbed habitats, pioneering on bare lands, along paths and in openings in secondary forests at (750-)1250-3000 m altitude. [2]

Botanical Description

G. macrophylla falls under the family of Haloragaceae. It is a perennial, soft, hairy herb and often with numerous stolons. The stem is very short. [2]

The leaves are in a rosette, kidney-shaped to cordate, angular, rarely irregularly (2-) 3-lobed, measuring 2.5-70 cm x 2.5-70 cm, irregularly dentate and bullate. The petiole is up to 70 cm long, provided with 3 warts at base. The stipules are absent. [2]

The inflorescence is a subterminal panicle with numerous lateral spikes, shortly stalked or sessile and up to 60 cm long in fruit. [2]

The lower spikes are with female flowers while the upper ones are with male flowers, but sometimes intermixed with bisexual flowers. The flowers are unisexual but sometimes bisexual, small and with 2(-3) sepals. The male flowers are with 2 spoon-shaped petals and 2 stamens. The female flowers are without petals, with inferior, 1-celled ovary and sessile stigma. [2]

The fruit is a spherical drupe about 2 mm in diametre, smooth, juicy and 1-seeded. The nutlet is flattened-globular and about 1 mm in diametre. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

684

Figure 1: The line drawing of G. macrophylla [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Gunnera macrophylla Blume [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 Jun 12] Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-370415
  2. Gunnera macrophylla Blume In: Lemmens RHMJ, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 12 (3): Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 3. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publication; 2003.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC World dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology (5 Volume set). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 398.