Articles

Ocimum americanum L.

Last updated: 13 July 2015

Scientific Name

Ocimum americanum L.

Synonyms

Ocimum album Roxb., Ocimum brachiatum Blume, Ocimum canum Sims, Ocimum dichotomum Hochst. ex Benth., Ocimum dinteri Briq., Ocimum fluminense Vell., Ocimum fruticulosum Burch., Ocimum hispidulum Schumach. & Thonn., Ocimum incanescens Mart., Ocimum stamineum Sims, Ocimum thymoides Baker. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Selaseh, kemangi, ruku-ruku [2][3]
English Hoary basil, American basil, common basil, lemon basil, mint, peppermint, sweet basil [2][3]
China Hui luo he [3]
India Acalcatimuli, acokatitacceti, ajaka, ban tulsi, bharbari, cenkolikam, civanmalai, cukantacuracaracam, intimalakam, jambira, kala tulshi, kattulay, kurai, mamri, nagad, naitulasi, putpakam, ramatulasi, thulasi, ticanam, vakuntikam, yaranimulli [3]
Indonesia Kemangi, serawung, selasih putih [2]
Thailand Maenglak [2]
Vietnam Rau h[us]ng [2]
Nigeria Efinrin, efinrin out, efinrin wewe, eruyanntefe, eye obale efinrin [3]
South Africa Kinuka (Swahili); manhuwe (Shona); mniaywatwane (South Sotho) [3]
South America Alfavaca,-campestre, alfavaca-de-cheiro, alfavaca-do-campo, esturaque, Garawa, remédio-dos-vaqueiros, segurelha Santa Maria, shara mashan, shara mashu [3]

Geographical Distributions

Ocimum americanum occurs wild and cultivated throughout tropical Africa and tropical Asia. Its exact origin is unknown. In Southeast Asia, it has been reported from the continental parts of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Its occurrence in the Philippines is doubtful. It has also been introduced into tropical America and some islands of the West Indies. [2]

O. americanum is often found growing on roadsides, in fields, in teak forests, and in open waste places close to settlements. It prefers sunny and wind-sheltered spots. It grows well from the plains up to 500(-2000) m altitude, preferably on upland soils, but it is also planted on dikelets of paddy fields. [3]

Botanical Description

O. americanum is a member of the Labiatae family. It is an erect, much-branched, annual, aromatic herb that can reach up to 0.3-1 m tall. The stem and branches are quadrangular, yellowish-green and densely white-pilose in the young parts but less when older. [2]

The leaves are simple, decussate and with petiolate. The petiole is up to 2.5 cm long. The leaf-blade is lance-shaped to elliptical, measuring 2.5-5 cm x 1-2.5 cm, wedge-shaped at the base, entire at the margin, acute at the apex, hairless and with gland-dotted on both surfaces. [2]

The inflorescence is up to 15 cm long, composed of decussate, with 3-flowered cymes and appears as 6-flowered whorls (verticillasters), which is up to 3 cm apart, terminal, simple or branched. The peduncle and axis are quadrangular. The 2-3 mm long bracts are elliptical-lance-shaped, hairy and persistent. The pedicel is up to 4 mm long and strongly recurved at the top. The sepal is bilobed where in the flower it is 2-2.5 mm long while in the fruit is 3-4.5 mm long. It is villous inside and pubescent with long white hairs outside. The upper lobe is flat and suborbicular while the lower lobe is canaliculated and sharply 4-toothed at the top. The petal is tubular, 2-lipped, measures 4-6 mm long and white. The upper lip is strongly recurved at the top and crenately 4-lobed while the lower lip is entire and smaller than the upper lip. There are 4 didynamous stamens, which are slender and exserted. The pistil is with 4-ovuled and 4-lobed ovary, slender style and with 2-lobed stigma. [2]

The fruit is composed of 4 distinct nutlets that enclosed within the tube of the persistent sepal. The black nutlets are ovoid and measuring up to 1.25 mm x 1 mm. The nutlet-wall produces a thick white cover of slimy threads within several minutes in water. The seed is free within the nutlet. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

851

Figure 1: The line drawing of O. americanum. [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Ocimum americanum L. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 July 13]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-136802
  2. Ocimum americanum L. In: Siemonsma JS, Piluek K, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 8. Vegetables. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers; 1993.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of plant names: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume IV M-Q. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 298.