Articles

Strychnos nux-vomica L.

Last updated: 19 Aug 2015

Scientific Name

Strychnos nux-vomica L.

Synonyms

Strychnos nux-vomica var. oligosperma Dop, Strychnos spireana Dop [1]

Vernacular Name

English Nux-vomica tree, strychnine plant [2], crow fig, dog button, nuv vomica, nux-vomica tree, poison nut, poison nut tree, quacker button, snake wood, snake wood, strychnine, strychnine,plant, strychnine tree, vomit nut, vomit weed [3]
China Fan mu pieh, ma chien, slaeng thom [3]
India Akku, akutaka, amaram, amati, amatikam, amatikaram, appayattutarakam, appu, appuri, appurimaram, arkapittacamani, atti azarqi, (kucla), bailewa, burada kuchla, mudabbbir, burada kuchla mudabbar, canram, cariram, carripputtekkimaram, cariputikam, cariputte, cariputtekki, cariputtel, carirattai, carirattaimaram, cariyam, cattaparicitti, cittikurimaram, corimaram, cutaka, cuvacakam,dirghapatra, etti, etti vittu, ettik-kottai, ettikkattai, ettikkottai, ettimaram, ettivittu, itti, garadruma, geradruma, hab-ul-gharab, hemmush, hemmushitti, hemmusti, hemushti, hub-ul-jarab, intu, irucikam, irucikamaram, ittanggi, ittemara, itti beeja, ittinji, izaragi, izaraki, jahr, jharakatachura, jharkatachura, jarhkhatchura,kaagara, kaajavaara, kaajraa, kaanaraka, kaanjara, kaanjira, kaankjirakkuru, kaasana mara, kaasara, kaasaaraka, kaasarakaayi, kasaasarkaayi, kachichira, kachila, kacotti, kagodi, kagophale, kagphala, kaitai, kaittakotaram [3]
Thailand Krachee, tuumka daeng (Central); salaeng thom (Nakhon Ratchasima) [2]; hong-buai-chikrachee, met-ka-chi, sa-laeng-bua, sa-laeng-chai, sa-laeng-thom, sa-laeng-thon, salaeng thom, tum-ka-daeng, tuumka daeng [3]
Laos 'sêng bua1 (Vientiane) [2][3]
Myanmar Hka-paung-kri [3]
Cambodia slaêng, slaêng thom [2][3]
Vietnam c[ur] chi (General); c[oo] chi (Khanh Hoa); m[ax] ti[eef]n [2], cu chi, ma tien, co ben kho, c[ur] chi,c[oo] chi, m [ax] ti [eef]n [3]
Nepal Nirmali [3].

Geographical Distributions

Strychnos nux-vomica is distributed from India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Burma (Myanmar), Indo-China (Cambodia, Laos, Southern Vietnam), Thailand and Northern Peninsular Malaysia. It has been introduced and locally naturalised in the Philippines (Mindoro). [2]

S. nux-vomica occurs often at the edge of dense forest, on river banks and along the shore, on loamy or loamy-sandy soil. [2]

Botanical Description

S. nux-vomica is a member of the family Loganiaceae. This plant is a small to medium-sized tree that can reach up to measure 25 m tall. The bole is measures up to 100 cm in diametre. The branches are not rough, yellowish-grey in colour, sometimes with axillary thorns and absent tendrils. [2]

The leaves are broadly ovate to elliptical or suborbicular in shape, measure about 5-18 cm x 4-12.5 cm and with 5-12 mm long petiole. [2]

The inflorescence is terminal on short axillary branchlets that usually with one pair of leaves and fairly with many-flowered. The petal is measuring 10-13 mm long. The tube is about 3 times longer than lobes and it sparsely woolly hairy in the lower half inside. [2]

The fruit is spherical in shape, with a size of measure about 2.5-4(-6) cm in diametre and with 1-4-seeded. [2]

The seeds are lenticular, orbicular to elliptical in shape, with a size of measure about 20-23 mm x 18-20 mm x 4 mm and they are densely sericeous. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

1016

Figure 1: The line drawing of S. nux-vomica [2]

References

  1. The Plant List.  Ver1.1. Strychnos nux-vomica L. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 Aug 19]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2598138
  2. Purwaningsih. Strychnos nux-vomica L. In: de Padua LS, Bunyapraphatsara N, Lemmens RHMJ, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 1999; p. 472.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume IV M-Q. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 436-437.