Articles

Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex André

Last updated: 07 Apr 2016

Scientific Name

Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex André

Synonyms

Anthurium andraeanum var. divergens Sodiro,Anthurium venustum Sodiro [1]

Vernacular Name

English
Flamingo lili [2], anthurium, oilcloth flower, painter’s palette [3]
Japan
Ô-beni-uchiwa _large red fan) [3].

Geographical Distributions

Anthurium spp. are native to tropical America. They are houseplants in most areas, but may be grown in gardens in South Florida and Hawaii. [2]

Botanical Description

Anthurium andreanum is a member of the Araceae family. It is a herbaceous perennials plants. [4]

The plant is characterized by the attractive orange-red, heart-shaped, blistered spathe which can reach up to 14 cm long and 9 cm wide. This is carried on a long peduncle. The vassal lobes are slightly overlapping and sometimes fused at the base. [5]

The leaves are heart shaped, clustering, dark green, and leathery. The leaf blades are up to 30 cm long; the apex is acute to acuminate, margins entire.  [4][6]

The waxy spathes offer an astonishing, sweet scent. [4] The spadix is recurved and measures 7 cm long. It is yellow initially and turning white upon maturing. [5] The flowers are bisexual and small. There are 4 segments perianth with 4 stamens and superior ovary. [4]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

A. andraeanum flower ash was reported is used to treat boils. [4]

Generally, the plant is used as an ornamental. [7]

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

Toxic parts

Whole plant [2]

Toxin

The whole plant contains calcium oxalate crystals especially in the sap.  It is also contains proteolytic enzymes that can excite histamine release causing serious allergic reaction in sensitive individuals. [2]

Risk management

A. andreanum are unique plants which may help in further enhancing the landscape around the house. However, it can cause adverse effects on pets and children when ingested. It would be wise to place this plant as a second layer plant which would render it inaccessible to pets and out of reach of small children.

Poisonous clinical findings

The leaves and stems of A. andreanum containing minute, sharp crystals, or raphides, of calcium oxalates. If ingested, it causes painful burning and swelling of the lips, mouth, and throat, sometimes to the extent of causing restriction to breathing. Symptoms may include increase salivation, hoarseness, difficulty in swallowing, loss of speech, and loss of appetite. The initial pain from ingestion almost always inhibits further swallowing. The crystals pass unchanged through the digestive tract not causing further complications. The calcium oxalate crystals may cause irritation to the skin and eyes. [6]

Management

In managing the case of Oxalate poisoning, prehospital and emergency department care could be taken. [2][8]

Pre-hospital care:

  1. Remove all traces of plant material from areas contaminated with it i.e. mouth, eye and skin, immediately. Rescuers should ensure they are protected from contact with these plant materials.
  2. Exposed areas should be copiously irrigates with water.
  3. If ingested, the mouth should be repeatedly rinsed with cool water or a demulcent.
  4. Provide analgesics if pain is severe.

Emergency Department care:

  1. Oral exposure – Asses airway for any signs of compromise. Those without compromised airway can be given cold liquids, crushed ice or ice cream for relief. Keeping or swishing antihistamine liquid like diphenhydramine in the mouth can provide local anaesthetic and antihistaminic effects. Those with evidence of laryngeal oedema can be treated with antihistamines and observed or better admitted until oedema subsides.
  2. Eye exposures – Copious irrigation with water. Rule out corneal involvement by performing slit-lap examination with fluorescein staining.
  3. Skin exposures – Washing with soap and water suffice, and local wound care it there exist any wounds. Some people may develop contact dermatitis.

Line drawing

No documentation.

References

  1. The Plant List.  Ver1.1. Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex André. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2016 Apr 07]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-10633
  2. Nelson LS, Shih RD, Balick MJ. Handbook of poisonous and injurious plants. 2nd ed. New York: Springer, 2007; p. 43, 81-82.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume I A-B. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012; p. 327-328.
  4. Vardhana R. Direct uses of medicinal plants and their identification. New Delhi : Sarup & Sons, 2008; p. 34.
  5. Kamemoto H, Kuehnie AR. Breeding Anthuriums in Hawaii. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1996; p. 4.
  6. Turner NJ, Aderkas PV. The North American guide to common poisonous plants and mushrooms. Portland: Timber Press, 2009; p. 288-289.
  7. Chin WY, Gopalakrishnakone P. A colour guide to dangerous plants. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1990; p.61.
  8. Oxalate Poisoning. [homepage on the Internet]. No date. [cited 2011 April 20]. Available from: http://misc.medscape.com/pi/android/medscapeapp/html/A817016-business.html