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Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertner) Colebr.

Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertner) Colebr.

Family

Menispermaceae

Synonyms

Coscinium wallichianum Miers, Coscinium usitatum Pierre, Coscinium blumeanum auct. non Miers ex Hook.f. & Thomson.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia

Kunyit-kunyit babi (Peninsular), abang asuh (Sabah), perawan (Sarawak).

Indonesia

Akar kuning (Java), akar kunyit (Bangka), upak-upak (East Kalimantan).

Thailand

Khruea hen (North-eastern), khamin khruea (South-eastern).

Vietnam

V[af]ng d[aws]ng, ho[af]ng d[awf]ng, d[awf]ng giang.

Geographical Distributions

Coscinium fenestratum has been found in southern India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand (rare), Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Bangka, western Java and Borneo.

Description

Coscinium fenestratum is a dioecious liana that can reach up to 10 m long, with yellow wood and sap.

The leaves are arranged spirally, simple, broadly ovate or ovate, rarely subpanduriform, measuring 11-33 cm x 8-23 cm, with rounded base, truncate to shallowly heart-shaped, acuminate apex and palmately 5-7-veined. The petiole is 3-16 cm long, often conspicuously swollen at both ends, abruptly bends at base and inserted up to 0.8(-2.7) cm from basal margin of leaf blade (and thus leaf often peltate). The stipules are absent.

The inflorescence is spherical, with head 6-7 mm in diametre on a peduncle 10-30 mm long, arranged in raceme 5-11 cm long, supra-axillary or on older, leafless stems and with dense brown hairs. The flowers are unisexual, small and yellowish or whitish. There are 9 sepals in 3 whorls, imbricate and with dense silky hairs. The petals are absent. The male flowers are with 6 stamens, 3 outer free and 3 inner connate while the female flowers are with 6 staminodes and 3 superior, densely hairy carpels.

The fruit consists of 1-3 globular drupes about 3 cm in diametre, brown to orange or yellowish and with 1-seeded drupe. The seed is nearly globular, whitish, with extremely divergent, much folded and divided cotyledons. The endosperm is present.

Ecology / Cultivation

Coscinium fenestratum occurs in primary lowland forests, sometimes also in brushwoods, up to 200 m altitude.

Line Drawing / Photograph

Coscinium_fenestratum

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References

1.       Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.12(3): Medicinal and poisonous plants 3.