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Pandanus odoratissimus L.f.

Pandanus odoratissimus L.f.

Family

Pandanaceae

Synonyms

Pandanus fascicularis Lamk, Pandanus sabotan Blanco, Pandanus tectorius auct. non Parkinson.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia

Pandan.

English

Pandanus, screwpine.

Indonesia

Pandan laut (Ma­lay, Sundanese), pandan pasir (Javanese).

Phi­lippines

Sabotan, sibutan (Tagalog), parauan (Gaddang).

Cambodia

Rumche:k (general).

Laos   

(do:k) ke:d (Louang Prabang).

Thailand

Kaa­raket, toei thale, lam chiak (central).

Vietnam

Gi[uwr]a (d[uwr]a) d[aj]i (Ha Nam Ninh).

Geographical Distributions

Pandanus odoratissimus is widely distributed on the Indo-Malaysian coasts from India and Sri Lanka throughout Southeast Asia to Taiwan, the Ryukyu Islands and Micronesia. It is the predomi­nant wild Pandanus of the sandy coasts in Malay­sia, but it is also often cultivated inland.

Description

Pandanus odoratissimus is a coarsely branched tree. It can grow up to 12-14 m tall with open crown. The trunk is erect or more or less decumbent, and measures up to 20 cm in diam­etre. It is grey, and with prop roots near the base.

The adult leaves are usually 20-30 times longer than wide, and measure up to 3 m x 9 cm. The margins and dorsal midrib are armed with usually forwardly directed, very sharp prickles that are 5-10 mm long. The apex is gradually narrowed to an elongated flagella. The youngest leaves are erect with the older ones droop from the midpoint. They are glaucous, and with 40-160 parallel veins but not prominent.

The male inflorescence is 30-60 cm long and usually with 5-11 spikes, which are 5-10 cm long. The bracts are less than 30 cm long. The phalanges are 10-15 mm long, bearing 19-26 sta­mens with filaments 0.5-2 mm. The anthers are 2-3.5 mm long and with pointed apex 0.5 mm long. The female inflorescence is usually with one single head on a peduncle 10-30 cm long. The bracts are sub­fleshy, navicular and with prickly midrib and mar­gins. The head is spherical to ellipsoid, measuring 15-20(-30) cm x 12-18(-20) cm and it contains (26-)50-70(-143) car­pellate phalanges (and each cluster is pentagonal or hexagonal). The phalanges measure 3-8 cm x 2-5 cm and are com­posed of 4-10 concentrically arranged and fused carpels. The stigma is U- or V-shaped.

The aggregated fruit is orange-red while the carpel clusters are free from each other but tightly crowded, whereas the endocarp is red-brown. The seed is spindle-shaped to obovoid, measures 10-12 mm long, and with white and soft endosperm.

Ecology / Cultivation

Pandanus odoratissimus is found on sandy beaches, in littoral thick­ets, on the edges of brackish marshes and man­groves, and inland along watercourses at low altitudes. Rainfall should be high. It can grow on a wide range of soils, but heavy, poorly drained loams are not suitable.

Line Drawing / Photograph

Pandanus_odoratissimus

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References

1.       Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.17: Fibre plants.