Ginkgo biloba attenuates oxidative stress in macrophages and endothelial cells.


Rong Y, Geng Z, Lau BH




Free Radic Biol Med


The action of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) as an antioxidant was studied using various models of oxidative stress in macrophages and vascular endothelial cells. GBE was incubated with murine macrophages (J774) at 37 degrees C and 5% CO2 for 1 h; oxidative burst was triggered by zymosan. The intensity of fluorescence was measured directly in 96-well plates using a computerized microplate fluorometer at 485 nm excitation and 530 nm emission. GBE exhibited both time- and concentration-dependent suppression of oxidative burst. Confluent monolayers of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) were preincubated with different concentrations of GBE for 16 h, washed, and then exposed to an organic oxidant tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) for 2 h. Lipid peroxidation products of PAEC were determined by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Cell injury was assessed by measuring the release of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cell viability was determined by the methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. tBHP increased production of TBARS in PAEC. Preincubation with GBE inhibited the increase of TBARS induced by tBHP. GBE protected biomembranes from oxidative injury by decreasing intracellular LDH leakage from PAEC. MTT assay showed that GBE minimized loss of cell viability induced by oxidative injury. The extensive antioxidant effect of GBE may be valuable to the prevention and treatment of various disorders related to free radical-induced pathology.