Articles

Effects of the platelet activating factor antagonists BN 52021 and BN 50730 on antigen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness and eosinophil infiltration in lung from sensitized guinea-pigs.

Author

Lagente V, Boichot E, Carre C, Guinot P, Mencia-Huerta JM, Braquet P

Date

12/1993

Journal

Clin Exp Allergy

Abstract

The involvement of platelet activating factor (PAF) in antigen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness was investigated by the use of the PAF antagonists BN 52021 and BN 50730, in a guinea-pig model where sensitization and challenge were performed by aerosol. Male Hartley guinea-pigs were sensitized by two aerosol exposures at 48 hr intervals to a 0.9% NaCl solution (saline) containing 2 mg/ml ovalbumin for 30 min. Fifteen to 20 days later, guinea-pigs were challenged by exposure to five successive aerosols of increasing concentrations of ovalbumin (OA) or respectively, 10 microg/ml, 100 microg/ml, 1 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml for 15 min each, or saline alone. Three to four hr and 18-24 hr after the aerosol challenge the guinea-pigs were prepared for recording of bronchopulmonary response and aerosol administrations were then generated with an ultrasonic nebulizer. The bronchopulmonary responses induced by successive 1-min aerosol bursts of acetylcholine (ACh) was assessed. As compared with saline-challenged guinea-pigs, an enhanced bronchopulmonary response to aerosol administration of cumulative doses of ACh was observed, 3-4 hr and 18-24 hr post-ovalbumin challenge. When the sensitized guinea-pigs were pretreated 1 hr before ovalbumin exposure with BN 52021 or BN 50730 (25 mg/kg, per os), a significant inhibition of the increase in the bronchopulmonary response to ACh was observed, both at 3-4 hr and 18-24 hr. Furthermore, when guinea-pigs were treated 3-4 hr after the ovalbumin exposure with BN 52021 or BN 50730, a significant inhibition of the hyperresponsiveness to ACh was recorded at 18-24 hr. A marked accumulation of eosinophils in the peribronchial regions was observed on histological preparations of lung specimens collected 4 hr or 24 hr after ovalbumin exposure. Pretreatment of the guinea-pigs by BN 50730 or BN 52021 did not modify the eosinophil accumulation in the peribronchial area. No significant difference in the number of eosinophils collected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid is observed, 24 hr post-ovalbumin challenge, under the pretreatment with BN 52021 or BN 50730. Pretreatment of guinea-pigs by BN 50730 or BN 52021 significantly reduced the PAF-induced (100 microg/ml) increase in eosinophil number in the peribronchial area. By contrast, they did not inhibit the eosinophilia induced by aerosol administration of LTB4 (5 microg/ml). These results suggest that the bronchial hyperresponsiveness observed in this study is associated with eosinophil accumulation in the lung. The potent inhibition of the bronchial hyperresponsiveness by the two unrelated antagonists of PAF suggests that the lipid mediator is involved in its triggering and duration, but not in the eosinophil infiltration.