Articles

Noni

Plant Part Used

Fruit juice.

Active Constituents

 

Alkaloids (including xeronine, proxeronine), glycosides (including citrifolinoside)(6); polysaccharides (including tri-saccharide fatty acids, glucuronic acid, arabinose, rhamose)(1),(2); phenolic compounds, isoscopoletin, aesculetin and 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin)(9); anthraquionones (including damnacanthal).[span class=alert]

This section is a list of chemical entities identified in this dietary supplement to possess pharmacological activity. This list does not imply that other, yet unidentified, constituents do not influence the pharmacological activity of this dietary supplement nor does it imply that any one constituent possesses greater influence on the overall pharmacological effect of this dietary supplement.[/span]

Introduction

Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is found in many parts of the tropics, including the Pacific Islands, Southeast Asia, India, and the Philippines. Noni fruit was found in the pharmacopoeia of the ancient Hawaiians, and is still used by the local population in Hawaii for diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, and other chronic disorders. The ripe fruit of noni is said to have butyric acid fruit smell and flavour.(6) However, clinical data to support the use of noni fruit in these and other conditions is scarce.

Interactions and Depletions

Interactions

Dosage Info

Dosage Range

30-180ml daily taken on an empty stomach, either ½ hour before or 1 hour after meals. Dilute in favorite beverage.

Most Common Dosage

30ml (1oz) daily taken on an empty stomach, either ½ hour before or 1 hour after meals. Dilute in favorite beverage.

Standardization

[span class=doc]Standardization represents the complete body of information and controls that serve to enhance the batch to batch consistency of a botanical product, including but not limited to the presence of a marker compound at a defined level or within a defined range.[/span]

Not applicable.

Uses

Frequently Reported Uses

  • Antitumor
Other Reported Uses
  • Support Of The Immune System
  • Chemotherapy Support
  • Sedative

Toxicities & Precautions

General

Noni fruit juice has been reported safe in recommended dosages.

Side Effects

Noni fruit was reported to cause hyperkalemia in one human case report. (3)

Pregnancy/ Breast Feeding

As with all supplements, use with caution in pregnancy.Recent studies reported that noni affects the bone formation of fetuses when the extract was tested on pregnant rats. (7)

Age Limitations

Do not use in children under 2 years of age unless recommended by a physician.

Pharmacology

Anti-cancer activity

The fruit juice of noni contains a polysaccharide-rich substance with anti-tumour activity.(4) Therapeutic administration of noni polysaccharides (an alcohol precipitated fraction) significantly enhanced the duration of survival of tumor bearing mice. It is suggested that noni may suppress tumor growth through activation of the host immune system. Also, of interest in this study, was that concomitant treatment with the immunosuppressive agent, 2-chloroadenosine or cyclosporin diminished noni’s activity, thereby substantiating an immunomodulatory mechanism. The noni-precipitated fraction was also capable of stimulating the release of several mediators from murine effector cells, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-10, IL-12 p70, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and nitric oxide, but had no effect on IL-2 and suppressed IL-4 release. Improved survival time and curative effects occurred when noni polysaccharides were combined with sub-optimal doses of the standard chemotherapeutic agents, adriamycin, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and vincristine. The authors concluded that noni fruit may be used as a supplemental agent in cancer treatment. More research should be performed in this area to determine possible synergism between noni and the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Recent reports suggest that noni also play a role in cannabinoid receptors where it activates CB-2 receptors but suppress CB-1 receptors and increasing the production IFN-Ɣ which causes transition in the immune response. (10)

Analgesic effects

Noni fruit has also been reported to have sedative/analgesic effects, actually being antagonistic to naloxone.(5) The extract did not exhibit any toxic effects but did show a significant, dose-related, central analgesic activity in the writhing and hotplate tests, confirmed by the antagonistic action of naloxone. It is reported that noni affects the formation of new blood vessels which helps to decrease stress-induced pain in restrained mice. (8)

Anti-oxidant properties

In a laboratory study, the extract of noni (ethanol and ethyl acetate) was reported to have superior anti-oxidant properties when compared with vitamin C using tetrazolium nitroblue assay. (6)

Anti-inflammatory activity

It is reported that noni reduce the formation of edema in rats when induced by bradykinin. Noni is reported to be as effective as Celebrex (a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) but with less side effects as it plays a role in the cyclo-oxygenase enzymes. (6)

Cardiovascular activity

Noni extracts such as methanol and ethyl acetate helps to prevent the possibility of stroke by inhibiting the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins. (6)

References

  1. View Abstract: Wang M, Kikuzaki H, Jin Y, et al. Novel Glycosides from Noni (Morinda citrifolia). J Nat Prod. Aug2000;63(8):1182-3.
  2. Levand O, Larson HO. Some Chemical Constituents of Morinda citrifolia. Planta Med. Jun1979;36(2):186-7.
  3. View Abstract: Mueller BA, Scott MK, Sowinski KM, et al. Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia): Hidden Potential for Hyperkalemia? Am J Kidney Dis. Feb2000;35(2):310-2.
  4. View Abstract: Hirazumi A, Furusawa E. An Immunomodulatory Polysaccharide-rich Substance from the Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) with Antitumour Activity. Phytother Res. Aug1999;13(5):380-7.
  5. View Abstract: Younos C, Rolland A, Fleurentin J, et al. Analgesic and Behavioural Effects of Morinda citrifolia. Planta Med. Oct1990;56(5):430-4.
  6. Chan-Blanco Y., Vaillant F., Reynes M., Brillouet J.M., Brat P. The noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.): A review of agricultural research, nutritional and therapeutic properties. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2006;19(6-7):645-654.
  7. Marques NF, Marques AP, Iwano AL, Golin M, De-Carvalho RR, Paumgartten FJ, Dalsenter PR. Delayed ossification in Wistar rats induced by Morinda citrifolia L. exposure during pregnancy. J Ethnopharmacol. 2Mar2010;128(1):85-91.
  8. Muto J, Hosung L, Uwaya A, Isami F, Ohno M, Mikami T. Morinda citrifolia fruit reduces stress-induced impairment of cognitive function accompanied by vasculature improvement in mice. Physiol Behav. 21Apr2010. [Epub ahead of print]
  9. Liu, C.-h. Xue, Y.-r. Ye, Y.-h. Yuan, F.-f. Liu, J.-y. Shuang, J.-l. Extraction and Characterization of Antioxidant Compositions From Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni). Agricultural Sciences in China. Dec2007;6(12):1494-1501.
  10. Palu AK, Kim AH, West BJ, Deng S, Jensen J, White L. The effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) on the immune system: its molecular mechanisms of action. J Ethnopharmacol. 12Feb2008;115(3):502-506.