Articles

Passionflower

Plant Part Used

Vine

Active Constituents

Flavonoids, including quercetin, kaempferol, (14) vitexin, isovitexin and the C-glycosides apigenin, luteolin; chlorogenic acid, maltol and traces of harmane alkaloids. (1) , (2) [span class=alert]

This section is a list of chemical entities identified in this dietary supplement to possess pharmacological activity. This list does not imply that other, yet unidentified, constituents do not influence the pharmacological activity of this dietary supplement nor does it imply that any one constituent possesses greater influence on the overall pharmacological effect of this dietary supplement.[/span]

Introduction

Passionflower, or maypop, is a common roadside vine in many areas of the United States. Passionflower has been reported to have sedative, hypnotic, antispasmodic, and anodyne (pain relieving) properties. It has traditionally been used for neuralgia, generalized seizures, hysteria, tachycardia, spasmodic asthma, and insomnia.

The vine of passionflower is white colour with flavonoid as possible active constituents.  Passionflower has been listed in the pharmacopoeias of United States, Switzerland, Great Britain, India, France, Germany and others. (16)

Besides, passionflower is known as “calming” herb which derived from the ability of the plant to support nervousness, hysteria, seizures and insomnia. (14) It has also been reported that passionflower helps support epilepsy.(16)

This plant usually used in homeopathic medicine to treat anxiety and insomnia. Passionflower also enables to cure diseases that relate in nervous disorder, anxiety, muscular tension. Also, the previous study showed that passionflower has potential trace for treat several diseases such as disorder of attention-deficit hyperactivity, hypertension, insomnia, anxiety and some cancer. (15)

Interactions and Depletions

Interactions

Dosage Info

Dosage Range

100-200mg (standardized extract), 2-3 times a day; 200mg (standardized extract) at bedtime for insomnia.

Tea: One cup, 2-3 times a day or before bedtime using one teaspoon of dried herb per cup. (3)

Tincture: 0.5 to 2 ml, 3 times daily. (4)

Most Common Dosage

100mg (standardized extract), 2 times a day for anxiety; 200mg (standardized extract) at bedtime for insomnia.

Tea: One cup, 2-3 times a day or before bedtime using one teaspoon of dried herb per cup.

Tincture: 0.5 ml, 3 times daily.

Standardization

[span class=doc]Standardization represents the complete body of information and controls that serve to enhance the batch to batch consistency of a botanical product, including but not limited to the presence of a marker compound at a defined level or within a defined range.[/span]

The most current available medical and scientific literature indicates that this dietary supplement should be standardized to 3.5% isovitexin per dose.

Uses

Frequently Reported Uses

  • Antianxiety Agent
  • Mild Sedative
Other Reported Uses
  • Antispasmodic
  • Anodyne
  • Insomnia
  • Used In Combination With Other Herbs Such As Valerian Root And Passion Flower In Insomnia
  • Hypertension
  • Menopause

 

Toxicities & Precautions

General

Passionflower has been reported safe in recommended doses.

Recommend caution while driving an automobile or operating heavy machinery when using passionflower.

Health Conditions

The root of passionflower contains coumarins. Although no adverse effects related to the coumarins have been reported, large doses may alter the course of therapy in patients with bleeding or clotting disorders. (5)

Pregnancy/ Breast Feeding

If pregnant or nursing, consult a physician before use.

Age Limitations

Do not use in children under 2 years of age unless recommended by a physician.

Pharmacology

The bioactive constituents maltol and ethylmaltol have been shown to have central nervous system (CNS) sedation, anticonvulsant activity (high doses), and a reduction in spontaneous motor activity (low doses) in laboratory animals. (6) Animal studies involving the CNS showed no reaction with the flavonoid constitutents in passionflower  which raises questions on the effect of Passiflora incarnate. Therefore more studies need to be conducted to rectify the anticonvulsant effects by this plant. (15)

The harmane alkaloids are reported to have CNS stimulatory action. It has been suggested that the maltol and ethylmaltol constituents may mask the stimulatory activity of the harmane alkaloids. (7)

Passionflower extracts have been reported to reduce motor activity, prolong sleeping time, raise the nociceptive (pain) threshold and produce an anxiolytic effect in laboratory animals. (8) Passionflower has been reported to increase the sleeping time induced by hexobarbital. (9) The exact bioactive constituents with this activity is controversial, Maltol shows sedative activity while other constituents not yet identified appear to provide much of the neuropharmacological activity. (10)

In humans, passionflower has been reported to be useful in combination with other sedative and anti-anxiety herbs such as valerian. (11) These effects may be due to synergism and also due to the potential binding of passionflower constituents to benzodiazepine receptors in vivo. (12) , (13)

References

  1. View Abstract: Li QM, et al. Mass Spectral Characterization of C-glycosidic Flavonoids Isolated From a Medicinal Plant (Passiflora incarnata). J Chromatogr. Jan1991;562(1-2):435-46.
  2. Lutomski J, et al. Pharmacochemical Investigation of the Raw Materials from Passiflora genus. 1. New Method of Chromatographic Separation and Fluorometric-planimetric Determination of Alkaloids and Flavonoids in Harman Raw Materials. Planta Med. Dec1994;26(4):311-17.
  3. PDR for Herbal Medicines, 2nd edition. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company; 2000:574.
  4. PDR for Herbal Medicines, 2nd edition. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company; 2000:574.
  5. Newall CA, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines; A Guide for Health-Care Professionals. London:The Pharmaceutical Press;1996.
  6. Kimura R, et al. Central Depressant Effects of Maltol Analogs in Mice. Chem Pharm Bull. (Tokyo). Sep1980;28(9):2570-79.
  7. Newall CA, et al. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health Care Professionals. London: The Pharmaceutical Press; 1996:206-07.
  8. View Abstract: Soulimani R, et al. Behavioural Effects of Passiflora incarnata L. and Its Indole Alkaloid and Flavonoid Derivatives and Maltol in the Mouse. J Ethnopharmacol. Jun1997;57(1):11-20.
  9. Aoyagi N, et al. Studies on Passiflora incarnata Dry Extract. I. Isolation of Maltol and Pharmacological Action of Maltol and Ethyl Maltol. Chem Pharm Bull. (Tokyo). May1974;22(5):1008-13.
  10. Speroni E, et al. Neuropharmacological Activity of Extracts from Passiflora incarnata. Planta Med. Dec1988;54(6):488-91.
  11. View Abstract: Bourin M, et al. A Combination of Plant Extracts in the Treatment of Outpatients with Adjustment Disorder with Anxious Mood: Controlled Study Versus Placebo. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1997;11(2):127-32.
  12. View Abstract: Wolfman C, et al. Possible Anxiolytic Effects of Chrysin, A Central Benzodiazepine Receptor Ligand Isolated from Passiflora coerulea. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. Jan1994;47(1):1-4.
  13. Speroni E, et al. Neuropharmacological Activity of Extracts from Passiflora incarnata. Planta Med. Dec1988;54(6):488-91.
  14. Lourdes R., et al. Risks and Benefits of Commonly used Herbal Medicines in Mexico. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. February 2008;1(227): 125-135 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4  
  15. Marjan N., et al. Anticonvulsant effects of aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata extract in mice: involvement of benzodiazepine and opioid receptors. BioMed Central. August 2007,7:26
  16. Elsas S.M.,et al. Passiflora incarnata L. (Passionflower) extracts elicit GABA currents in hippocampal neurons in vitro, and show anxiogenic and anticonvulsant effects in vivo, varying with extraction method. Phytomedicine. In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 10 April 2010.
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
  1. Lourdes R., et al. Risks and Benefits of Commonly used Herbal Medicines in Mexico. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. February 2008;1(227): 125-135
  2. Marjan N., et al. Anticonvulsant effects of aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata extract in mice: involvement of benzodiazepine and opioid receptors. BioMed Central. August 2007,7:26
  3. Elsas S.M.,et al. Passiflora incarnata L. (Passionflower) extracts elicit GABA currents in hippocampal neurons in vitro, and show anxiogenic and anticonvulsant effects in vivo, varying with extraction method. Phytomedicine. In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 10 April 2010.