Articles

Tylophora

Plant Part Used

Leaf, Root

Active Constituents

Alkaloids including tylophorine and tylophorinine.(1) Tannin, resin, glucose, ceryl alcohol, alpha-amyrin, quercetin, kaempferol (10) and essential oils. (11)[span class=alert]

This section is a list of chemical entities identified in this dietary supplement to possess pharmacological activity. This list does not imply that other, yet unidentified, constituents do not influence the pharmacological activity of this dietary supplement nor does it imply that any one constituent possesses greater influence on the overall pharmacological effect of this dietary supplement.[/span]

Introduction

Tylophora has been used traditionally in Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years in problems with the lungs and breathing. Tylophora is used in the nutritional support of bronchial asthma and symptoms of allergies.

Interactions and Depletions

Interactions

Dosage Info

Dosage Range

250-500mg (standardized extract), 1-3 times a day.

Most Common Dosage

250mg (standardized extract), 2 times a day.

Standardization

[span class=doc]Standardization represents the complete body of information and controls that serve to enhance the batch to batch consistency of a botanical product, including but not limited to the presence of a marker compound at a defined level or within a defined range.[/span]

The most current available medical and scientific literature indicates that this dietary supplement should be standardized to 0.1% tylophorine per dose.

Uses

Frequently Reported Uses

  • Allergic Rhinitis
  • Hay Fever
  • Bronchial Asthma
  • Adrenal Support
Other Reported Uses
  • Inflammatory Conditions
  • Immunomodulatory Effects
  • Emetic
  • Anti-dysenteric
  • Jaundice
  • Snake bite

Toxicities & Precautions

General

No toxicity is reported in recommended dosages. (2)

Do not treat asthma or other serious breathing problems without the advice of a doctor.

Side Effects

Large doses may cause nausea and vomiting.

Pregnancy/ Breast Feeding

If pregnant or nursing, consult a physician before use.

Age Limitations

Do not use in children under 2 years of age unless recommended by a physician.

Pharmacology

Anti-asthmatic activity

Numerous studies report the beneficial effects of tylophora in the treatment and management of bronchial asthma.(3),(4) Tylophora has been reported to improve asthmatic symptoms and lung function (force expiratory volume) by having short acting bronchodilator activity. (15) The anti-asthmatic effects are believed to be more accurately explained by tylophora’s reported depression of cell-mediated immunity(5) (delayed type hypersensitivity). (16) This suppression of cell mediated immune response was via inhibition of T cell proliferation and IL-2 production. (17) Tylophorine has also been reported to stimulate adenylate cyclase in leukocytes isolated from asthmatic children, but not normal children or adults, which may be reflective of beta-receptor activity.(6)

Anti-tumour activity

In vitro studies reported that tylophora alkaloids inhibited induced proliferation of lymphocytes and erythroleukaemic cells. The alkaloids also induced erythroleukaemic cells apoptosis by the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. (18) In recent study, tylophorine has been reported to affect the cell cycle. It retarded the S-phase progression (DNA synthesis) and arrested G1 phase by downregulating cyclin A2. (19)

Other activitiesTylophora has been reported to stimulate the adrenal glands.(7) Tylophora was reported to antagonize dexamethasone/hypophysectomy-induced suppression of pituitary activity of the adrenals, with a conclusion by the researcher that tylophora may act by a direct stimulation of the adrenal cortex.

Tylophora has been reported to have beneficial effects on the immune system, possibly stimulating phagocytic function while inhibiting the humoral component of the immune system.(8)

Tylophora also has antispasmodic and hypotensive properties as reported in in vivo studies. (20)

References

  1. Rao KV. Alkaloids of Tylophora. II. Structural Studies. J Pharm Sci. 1970;59(11):1608-11.
  2. Rao KV, et al. Alkaloids of Tylophora. 3. New Alkaloids of Tylophora Indica (Burm) Merrill and Tylophora Dalzellii Hook. F. J Pharm Sci. 1971;60(11):1725-26.
  3. Gore KV, et al. Physiological Studies With Tylophora Asthmatica in Bronchial Asthma. Indian J Med Res. 1980;71:144-48.
  4. Shivpuri DN, et al. Treatment of Asthma With an Alcoholic Extract of Tylophora Indica: A Cross-Over, Double Blind Study. Ann Allergy. 1972;30(7):407-12.
  5. Haranath PS, et al. Experimental Study on Mode of Action of Tylophora Asthmatica in Bronchial Asthma. Indian J Med Res. May1975;63(5):661-70.
  6. Raina V, et al. The Responsiveness of Leukocyte Adenyl Cyclase to Tylophorine in Asthmatic Subjects. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Jun1980;94(4):1074-77.
  7. View Abstract: Udupa AL, et al. The Possible Site of Anti-Asthmatic Action of Tylophora Asthmatica on Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Albino Rats. Planta Med. Oct1991;57(5):409-13.
  8. View Abstract: Atal CK, et al. Immunomodulating Agents of Plant Origin. I: Preliminary Screening. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986;18(2):133-41.
  9. Mahishi P, Srinivasa BH, Shivanna MB. Medicinal plant wealth of local communities in some villages in Shimoga District of Karnataka, India. J Ethnopharmacol. Apr2005 26;98(3):307-312.
  10. Govindachari TR, Pai BR and Natarajan K. Chemical examination of Tylophora asthmatica. Part I. J Chem Soc 1954; 2801-2803.
  11. Chopra RN, Nayar SL and Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi CSIR, 1956. p 250.
  12. Mahishi P, Srinivasa BH, Shivanna MB. Medicinal plant wealth of local communities in some villages in Shimoga District of Karnataka, India. J Ethnopharmacol. Apr2005 26;98(3):307-312.
  13. Indian Council of Medical Research. A review work on Indian Medicinal plants (including indigenous drugs etc.). ICMR Special Report Series. No. 30.1955. p 50.
  14. Mahishi P, Srinivasa BH, Shivanna MB. Medicinal plant wealth of local communities in some villages in Shimoga District of Karnataka, India. J Ethnopharmacol. Apr2005 26;98(3):307-312.
  15. Passalacqua G, Bousquet PJ, Carlsen KH, Kemp J, Lockey RF, Niggemann B, Pawankar R, Price D, Bousquet J. ARIA update: I--Systematic review of complementary and alternative medicine for rhinitis and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 May;117(5):1054-62.
  16. Ganguly, T., Sainis, K.B. Inhibition of cellular immune responses by Tylophora indica in experimental models. Phytomedicine 8(4): in press, 2001.
  17. Ganguly T, Badheka LP, Sainis KB. Immunomodulatory effect of Tylophora indica on Con A induced lymphoproliferation. Phytomedicine. 2001 Nov;8(6):431-7.
  18. Ganguly T, Khar A. Induction of apoptosis in a human erythroleukemic cell line K562 by tylophora alkaloids involves release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase 3. Phytomedicine. 2002 May;9(4):288-95.
  19. Wu CM, Yang CW, Lee YZ, Chuang TH, Wu PL, Chao YS, Lee SJ. Tylophorine arrests carcinoma cells at G1 phase by downregulating cyclin A2 expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Aug 14;386(1):140-5.
  20. Nandi M. Physical, chemical and biological assay of Tylophora indica mother tincture--a comparative study. Br Homeopath J. 1999 Oct;88(4):161-5.