“Yoga is a mind and body practice with origins in ancient Indian philosophy. The various styles of yoga typically combine physical postures, breathing techniques, and meditation or relaxation. There are numerous schools of yoga. Hatha yoga, the most commonly practiced in the United States and Europe, emphasizes postures (asanas) and breathing exercises (pranayama). Some of the major styles of hatha yoga are Iyengar, Ashtanga, Vini, Kundalini, and Bikram yoga.”

The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH)
Accessed on 2016, April 16

“A Hindu spiritual and ascetic discipline, a part of which, including breath control, simple meditation, and the adoption of specific bodily postures, is widely practiced for health and relaxation”

(The Concise Oxford Dictionary)

“A Hindu theistic philosophy teaching the suppression of all activity of body, mind, and will in order that the self may realize its distinction from them and attain liberation”

”A system of exercises for attaining bodily or mental control and well-being”

(Merriam Webster Online Dictionary)

“It is a practice or discipline that involves physical movement, mental focus and spiritual that originates from ancient India with the aim to achieve a peaceful state of mind to improve one’s peace of mind. Yoga also has been popular defines as “union drive” in the context of other traditions. Yoga has 8 folds path that advocate certain restraints and observances, physical disciplione, breath regulations, restraining the sense organs, contemplation, meditation and samadhi.”

Variables definition, Malaysia National Health Morbidity Survey 2015



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