Expanded definitions of selected Malaysian exports

Agar

Plant source: Dried, hydrophilic, colloidal substance extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum (L.) Gaillon (Fam. Gelidiaceae), Gracilaria confervoides (L.) Greville (Fam. Sphaerococcaceae), and related red algae (Class Rhodophyceae).

Common names: Engl.: agar; Malay: agar-agar.

HS code(s): HS 1302.3100.

CAS Reg. No.: PM 9002-18-0

Forms used: Dried mucilage; prepared by treating the algae with boiling water; the extract is filtered whilst hot, concentrated and dried.

Main exporting countries: The top 5 exporters are Chile, China, Indonesia, Morocco, and Spain. In 2006, Malaysia exported 7,058 kg mainly to Singapore (2,417 kg), Viet Nam (2,303 kg), and Indonesia (1,376 kg). NOTE: Government of India Department of Commerce reports importing 1,270 kg of agar (HS 130231) from Malaysia in 2006, however this data is not shown in COMTRADE database.

Grades and qualities: European Pharmacopoeia grade (Agar PhEur): Swelling index: NLT 10; Insoluble matter: NLT 1.0% residue; Gelatin test: no turbidity appears within 10 minutes; Loss on drying: NMT 20.0%; Total ash: NMT 5.0%; Microbial contamination: total viable aerobic count: NMT 103 microorganisms per gram. Complies with tests for Escherichia coli and Salmonella.

United States Pharmacopoeia grade (Agar USP-NF): Microbial limits: Absence of Salmonella species; Water: NMT 20 .0%; Total ash: NMT 6.5%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 0.5%; Foreign organic matter: NMT 1.0%; Foreign insoluble matter: NMT 1.0%; Arsenic; NMT 3 ppm; Lead: NMT 0.001%; Total heavy metals: NMT 0.004%; Foreign starch test: solution does not produce a blue color when iodine is added; Gelatin test: no yellow precipitate is formed; Water absorption.

Agarwood

Plant source: Aquilaria malaccensis Lam., syn.: A. agallocha Roxb. (Fam. Thymelaeaceae)

Common names: Engl.: agarwood; Malay: gaharu; Sansk.: agaru.

HS Code(s): HS 1211.9020 (heart wood, chips, flakes), HS 3301.3010 (oil). Note: Gaharu is imported under different HS Codes including: 1211.9033 (China), 1211.9052 (Japan), 1211.9080 (India), 1211.9095 (Myanmar and Viet Nam); Singapore uses 1211.9095 for chips, powder or blocks of A. malaccensis and 1211.9099 for chips, powder, or blocks of A. filaria.

Forms used: Dried heart wood; wood blocks, wood chips, flakes, powder and steam distilled resinoid agar oil.

Main exporting countries: Over 95% of global supply originates from Malaysia and Indonesia. In 2005 Malaysia exported 400,988 kg, mainly to Singapore (293,528 kg), UAE (30,431 kg), Viet Nam (29,850 kg), and Taiwan (26,479 kg).[i] Malaysia reports exporting 33,170 kg in 2006. The 2007 export quota for agarwood (powder and wood chips) from Malaysia is 200,000 kg.[ii]

CITES Appendix II: The government of each of Malaysia’s three administrative jurisdictions requires that permits be obtained from the relevant State Forestry Department to harvest and trade all agarwood-producing species. Harvesting from national parks or wildlife sanctuaries is prohibited in all States.[iii]

Grades and qualities: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India grade (Agaru API):[iv] Dark brown color, no characteristic smell or taste; Foreign matter: NMT 1%; Total ash: NMT 13%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 0.5%; Alcohol-soluble extractive: NLT 1%; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 2%.

Malaysian Institute of Nuclear Technology (MINT) has submitted four funding proposals under the Ninth Malaysian Plan to support research work which will include developing a standard grading system for woodchips and oil extracts.

Andrographis

Plant source: Dried aerial part of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Fam. Acanthaceae).

Common names: Chin.: chuan xin lian; Engl.: andrographis; Malay: hempedu bumi, akar cerita, pokok cerita; Sansk: bhuinimba, kirata.

HS Code(s): HS1211.9099 (dried herb); HS1302.1900 (extracts); HS3004.9090 (tablets).

Main exporting countries: China and India. No data is available on the volume of export from Malaysia. Domestic consumption in Malaysia is estimated at 7 to 8 MT annually. As of 2007, the Malaysian Herbal Corporation (MHC) is embarking on a massive herbal plantation project via its Herbal Valley Project that will include larger-scale cultivation of Andrographis herb.

Forms used: Dried aerial parts (leaf and stem), whole, cut or powdered; dried aerial parts and roots; standardized extracts; common andrographis tablets (Tabellae Andrographitis PPRC).

Grades and qualities: Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia (Andrographis Paniculata IHP):[v] 0.5-0.9% andrographolide by HPLC; Foreign organic matter: NMT 2.0%; Ash: NMT 15.0%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 3.0%; Alcohol-soluble extractive: NLT 8.0%; Alcohol(60%)-soluble extractive: NLT 24.0%; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 20.0%.

Malaysian Herbal Monograph:[vi] Green color, slight odor, very bitter taste; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 23% (hot method) or NLT 19% (cold method); Ethanol-soluble extractive: NLT 4%; Moisture: NMT 15%.

Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China grade (Herba Andrographis PPRC):[vii] Green color, slight odor, extremely bitter taste; Contains NLT 30% leaves; NLT 8.0% ethanol-soluble extractives; NLT 0.8% of total amount of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide by HPLC.

Cardamom

Plant source: Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Fam. Zingiberaceae)

Common names: Engl.: cardamom; Indonesia: kapulaga sabrang; Malay: buah pelage; Sansk: suksmaila.

HS Code(s): HS 0908.3010 (large (Amomum spp.) cardamom), HS 0908.3020 (small (Elettaria spp.), alleppey green cardamom), HS 0908.3030 (small, coorg green cardamom), HS 0908.3040 (small-bleached, half-bleached or bleachable cardamom), HS 0908.3050 (small cardamom seeds), HS 0908.3060 (small (mixed) cardamom), HS 0908.3070 (powdered cardamoms), HS 0908.3090 (other cardamoms NESOI); oleoresin (HS 3301.9015).

Main exporting countries: In 2005: Guatemala (31,654,443 kg), Indonesia (2,897,572 kg), India (1,964,439 kg), Singapore (1,294,408 kg), Saudi Arabia (735,701 kg), Columbia (239,030 kg), Netherlands (re-exports: 224,152 kg), Germany (re-exports: 184,344 kg), Honduras (160,731 kg), and Malaysia (135,836 kg). In 2006, Malaysia exported 112,330 kg, mainly to Viet Nam (58,100 kg), Hong Kong (28,270 kg), and Indonesia (16,000 kg).

Forms used: Dried ripe seed of dried fruits, recently removed from the capsule; oleoresin.

Grades and qualities: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India grade (Suksmaila API):[viii] Strongly aromatic odor, characteristic taste; Foreign matter: nil; Total ash: NMT 6.0%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 4.0%; Alcohol-soluble extractive: NLT 2.0%; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 10.0%; Essential oil: NLT 4.0% (v/w).

Japanese Pharmacopoeia grade (Cardamomi fructus JP):[ix] Aroma: characteristic and pungent; Taste; slightly bitter; Total ash: NMT 6.0%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 4.0%; Essential oil: NLT 1.0 mL from 30.0 g of pulverized seeds.

Food-grade or other non-therapeutic grade standards: American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) Cleanliness Specifications for Spices and Herbs; Bureau of Indian Standards: IS 1987:1984 (capsules and seeds), IS 13446:1922 (large cardamom); European Spice Association (ESA) Specifications of Quality Minima for Herbs and Spices; German Institute for Standardization (DIN): DIN 10206; International Organization for Standardization (ISO): ISO 882-1:1993 (whole capsules) and ISO 882-2:1993 (seeds); United States National Formulary (USP-NF) Cardamom monograph (for use as an excipient or food additive).

Other cardamoms: Java cardamom (Amomum maximum Roxb.) is native to the Malay Peninsula and cultivated in Java. Round cardamom (Amomum compactum Sol. ex Maton) is native to the Malay Peninsula where it is cultivated as well as in Java and Sumatra. It is exported to southeastern Asian countries.[x]

Carrageenan

Plant source: The hydrocolloid obtained by extraction with water or aqueous alkali from the following members of the families Gigartinaceae and Solieriaceae of the class Rodophyceae (red seaweed): Chondrus crispus Stackh., Chondrus ocellatus Holmes, Eucheuma cottonii Weber-van Bosse, Eucheuma spinosum J. Agardh, Gigartina acicularis (Roth) J.V. Lamouroux, Gigartina pistillata (S.G. Gmelin) Stackh., Gigartina radula (Esper) J. Agardh, and Gigartina stellata (Stackh.) Batters.

Common names: Engl.: Carrageenan

HS Code(s): HS 1302.3910 (1302.390010 for USA imports); kappa carrageenan is coded as HS 1302.3240 according to Indian Trade Classification (ITC).

Main exporting countries: The top 5 exporters of HS 130239 (which includes carrageenan) are Denmark, the USA, France, the Philippines, and Germany. The precise volume of carrageenan exported from Malaysia is not clear because it is generally grouped under the general 6-digit HS Code 130239 (mucilages and thickeners excluding agar). In 2006, Malaysia exported 432,633 kg of HS 130239, mainly to Spain, and also 27,832 kg of HS 130232 (includes mucilage from locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua L.), a.k.a. carob bean gum) mainly to China, Indonesia, and Singapore. In 2006, the USA imported 1,250 kg of carrageenan (HS 1302.390010) from Malaysia, which represented 83% of Malaysia’s exports to the USA of HS 130239. Therefore, it may be reasonable to assume that the majority of Malaysia’s exports of HS 130239 are comprised of carrageenan. In 2006, the USA imported 10,050,337 kg of carrageenan (Customs Value: $61,985,000 USD) mainly from the Philippines (5,090,314 kg), Canada (1,781,981 kg), France (804,951 kg), Chile (744,300 kg), and Indonesia (503,900 kg).

Forms used: The three types of carrageenan of commercial importance are kappa-, iota-, and lambda- carrageenan. These commercial extractives approximate to the limit polysaccharides, their criteria being functionality rather than strict chemical characterization.

Grades and qualities: USP grade (Carrageenan USP-NF):  Solubility in water: NMT 30 mL of water is required to dissolve 1 g at 80º; Viscosity: at 75º NLT 5 centipoises; Total bacterial count: NMT 200 cfu/g, absence of Salmonella species and Escherichia coli; Loss on drying: NMT 12.5%; Acid-insoluble matter: NMT 2.0%; Total ash: NMT 35.0%; Arsenic: NMT 3 ppm; Lead: NMT 0.001%; Total heavy metals: NMT 0.004%.

Cinchona alkaloids

Plant source(s): Obtained from various species of Cinchona and their hybrids or Remijia pedunculata Flückiger (Fam. Rubiaceae).

Common names: (1) Quinidine Gluconate (gluconate of the alkaloid); (2) Quinidine Sulfate (sulfate of the alkaloid); (3) Quinine Sulfate (sulfate of the alkaloid).

HS Code(s): HS 2939.29 (alkaloids of cinchona), HS 2939.21 (quinine & its sales), finished product capsules or tablets HS 3004.4000 (medicaments containing alkaloids or derivative thereof).

Main exporting countries: In terms of volume, Malaysia is the world’s leading exporter but in terms of reported values, European re-exporters are ahead of Malaysia including Austria, Germany, Ireland, and Switzerland. In 2005 for HS 2939.29 (COMTRADE): Malaysia (4,590,051 kg) followed by Guatemala (137,913 kg); HS 2939.21: India (475,635 kg) and Indonesia (195,446 kg). Note: According to MATRADE, in 2005, Malaysia actually exported 9,180,102 kg, about double the amount reported by COMTRADE.

Forms used: Gluconates or sulfates of the alkaloid; bulk powder or finished product in capsules or tablets.

Grades and qualities: Quinidine Gluconate USP; Quinidine Sulfate USP; Quinine Sulfate USP.

Clove

Plant source: Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Fam. Myrtaceae).

Common names: Chin.: ding xiang; Engl.: clove; Malay: bunga cengkeh; Sansk. lavanga.

HS Code(s): HS 0907.00 (whole flower bud and stems); HS 0907.0010 (extracted cloves); HS 0907.0020 (not extracted (other than stem) cloves); HS 0907.0030 (clove stems); HS 0907.0090 (other cloves NESOI); HS 3301.2921 (essential oil); HS 3301.9021 (extracted oleoresin).

Main exporting countries: During the 5-year period 2001-2005, the top five exporters of clove were Singapore, Madagascar, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Brazil. In 2006, Malaysia exported 450,943 kg, mainly to Belgium, Viet Nam, Japan, UK, Hong Kong, Singapore, and USA.

Forms used: Dried, unopened flower buds, separated from their peduncles; dried stems; dried nearly ripe fruit; extracted oleoresin; essential oil (of flower buds, stems, or leaves).

Grades and qualities: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India grade (Lavanga API):[xiii] Dark-brown or dusty red color, strongly aromatic odor, pungent aromatic taste followed by slight tingling of the tongue; Foreign matter: NMT 2.0%; Total ash: NMT 7%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 1%; Alcohol-soluble extractive: NLT 3%; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 9%; Essential oil: NLT 15%.

Malaysian Herbal Monograph:[xiv] Brown to black color, very strong aromatic odor; Total ash: NMT 5%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 3.5%; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 23% (hot method) or NLT 25% (cold method); Ethanol-soluble extractive: NLT 10%; Moisture: NMT 10%.

Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China grade (Flos Caryophylli PPRC; dried flower bud):[xv] Dark brown to brownish-yellow color, strongly aromatic odor, pungent and numbing taste; Foreign matter: NMT 4%; Water: NMT 12.0%; Eugenol: NLT 11.0% by GC method.

(Fructus Caryophylli PPRC; dried fruit):[xvi] Yellowish-brown or dark brown color, aromatic odor, pungent and numbing taste; Water: NMT 12.0%; Total ash: NMT 4.0%; Ethanol-soluble extractive: NLT 15.0%; Eugenol: NLT 0.65% by HPLC.

Food-grade or other non-therapeutic grade standards: American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) Cleanliness Specifications for Spices and Herbs; Bureau of Indian Standards: IS 4404:1992 (cloves whole or ground); European Spice Association (ESA) Specifications of Quality Minima for Herbs and Spices; German Institute for Standardization (DIN): DIN 10205; International Organization for Standardization (ISO): ISO 882-1:1993 (whole capsules) and ISO 2254:2004 (cloves whole and ground); United States National Formulary (USP-NF) Clove Oil monograph (for use as an excipient or food additive).

Cocoa Butter

Plant source: Fat obtained from the seeds of Theobroma cacao L. (Fam. Sterculiaceae).

Common names: Engl.: cocoa butter; Malay: pokok coklat.

HS Code(s): HS 1804.00

Main exporting countries: The top 5 exporters account for about 70% of total world exports. In the 5-year period 2001-2005, in terms of value, the 5 leading exporters were Netherlands (about 36%), France (12.4%), Malaysia (10%), Indonesia (6%), and Brazil (5.7%). In 2006, Malaysia exported 95,383,180 kg, mainly to the USA (25,540,460 kg), the Netherlands (20,570,993 kg), Japan (10,291,131 kg), and France (7,121,680 kg), among others.

Forms used: Soft butter form for use as active ingredient in protectant creams, gels, lotions or ointments.

Grades and qualities: United States Pharmacopeia National Formulary grade (Cocoa Butter USP-NF): Melting range: Between 31º and 35º; Free fatty acids: NMT 5.0 mL of 0.10 N sodium hydroxide (1.4% as oleic acid) in 10.0 g; Refractive index: Between 1.454 and 1.459 at 40º; Fatty acid composition: The percentages of palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate, linolenate (if present), and arachidate are in the ranges of 23 to 30, 31 to 37, 31 to 38, 1.6 to 4.8, 0 to 1.5, and 0 to 0.15, respectively; Iodine value: Between 33 and 42; Saponification value: Between 188 and 198.

Curry Powder

Plant source(s): Curry powders are quite variable usually containing 10 or more spices including coriander fruit, cumin fruit, fennel fruit, capsicum fruit, turmeric rhizome, clove flower bud, cinnamon bark, cardamom seed, black pepper fruit, ginger rhizome, galangal rhizome, fenugreek seed, tamarind pulp, and star anise fruit, among others.

HS Code(s): HS 0910.50

Main exporting countries: The top 5 exporters account for over 60% of total world exports. In the 5-year period 2001-2005, in terms of value, the 5 leading exporters were the UK (about 23%), France (about 13%), Malaysia (11%), Japan (8%), and India (7%). In 2006, Malaysia exported 1,813,685 kg, mainly to Singapore (1,428,064 kg), as well as Brunei Darussalam (110,679 kg), Australia (76,777 kg), and the USA (43,583 kg), among others.

Forms used: Powdered mixture of spices.

Grades and qualities: The Government of India’s Mixed Masala Powders Grading and Marking Rules 2000 could be applied.[xv]

Greater galangal

Plant source(s): Alpinia galangal (L.) Sw., syn.: Languas galanga (L.) Stuntz (Fam. Zingiberaceae).

Common names: Chin.: da gao liang jiang (rhizome), hong dou kou (fruit); Engl: greater galangal; Malay: lengjuas, lengkuas benar; Sansk.: kulanjana.

HS Code(s): HS 1211.9042 (all galangal rhizomes and roots including greater galangal).

Main exporting countries: China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines. Global trade data are not available however data from some individual countries such as India is available. In 2005, India exported 360,980 kg of HS 1211.9042, which includes all species of galangal, mostly to the UAE (290,780 kg) with smaller amounts exported to Sri Lanka, Kuwait, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, and Iran. India also imported 184,120 kg of galangal in the 2005 season, mostly from China (154,000 kg), Indonesia (30,100 kg), and a minor amount from Thailand.

Forms used: Dried fruit; dried rhizome.

Grades and qualities: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India grade (Kulanjana API; dried rhizome):[xvi] Reddish-brown color, pleasant and aromatic odor, spicy and sweet taste; Foreign matter: NMT 2%; Total ash: NMT 5%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 2%; Alcohol-soluble extractive: NLT 6%; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 13%; Starch: NLT 22%; Essential oil: NLT 0.4%.

Malaysian Herbal Monograph (dried rhizome):[xvii]

Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China Grade (Fructus Galangae PPRC; dried fruit):[xviii] Reddish-brown or dark red color, aromatic odor, pungent taste; Essential oil: NLT 0.40% (ml/g); Foreign matter: Absent.

Gotu kola / Pegaga

Plant source: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (Apiaceae).

Common names: Chin.: ji xue cao; Engl.: gotu kola; Indonesian: daun kaki kuda; Malay: pegaga; Sansk.: mandukaparni.

HS Code(s): HS 1211.9090 (other medicinal plants).

Main exporting countries: India, China, Madagascar, Malaysia; standardized extracts also from European countries. Because it is classified under a general HS Code, specific trade data are not available. As of 2007, the Malaysian Herbal Corporation (MHC) is embarking on a massive herbal plantation project via its Herbal Valley Project that will include larger-scale cultivation of gotu kola.

Forms used: Dried whole plant; dried herb; dried extracts.

Grades and qualities: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India grade (Mandukaparni API; dried whole plant):[xix] Foreign matter: NMT 2%; Total ash: NMT 17%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 5%; Alcohol-soluble extractive: NLT 9%; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 20%

Forest Research Institute of Malaysia: In 2005, an FRIM research project to develop a protein map of Centella asiatica was completed, which is to be used as a reference map for determining the quality of extracts (impurity) obtained from gotu kola. This technology can be offered to clients interested in testing for impurities of C. asiatica extracts for quality control. FRIM has also developed a standard procedure for the production of standardized extracts of gotu kola.

Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China grade (Herba Centellae PPRC; dried whole plant):[xx] Slight odor, weak taste; Water: NMT 12.0%; Total ash: NMT 13.0%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 3.5%; Ethanol-soluble extractive: NLT 25.0%.

Gutta percha

Plant source: Coagulated, dried, purified latex of the trees of the genera Palaquium and Payena and most commonly Palaquium gutta (Hooker) Baillon (Fam. Sapotaceae).

Common names: Engl.: gutta percha; Malay: getah perca, getah taban.

HS Code(s): HS 4001.3001 (Gutta-percha, balata, guayule, chicle, and similar natural gums).

Main exporting countries: Malaysia and Indonesia are major producers of gutta-percha. Small quantities are also produced in Thailand. The major markets for gutta-percha are Japan, EU, USA, South Korea, China, and Australia.[xxi] The top 5 exporters account for over 60% of total world exports of HS 4001.3001 (which includes gutta-percha, among other similar gums). In the 5-year period 2001-2005, in terms of value, the 5 leading exporters of HS 4001.3001 were Singapore (18.5%), USA (11.8%), Sweden (11.0%), Mexico (10.2%), and Indonesia (9.3%). Malaysia’s share of world exports is about 1.5%. In 2005, Malaysia exported 151,160 kg, mainly to Other Asia NESOI (96,000 kg) and Thailand (54,800 kg.).

Forms used: Dried latex used in dentistry as a medical device intended to fill the root canal of a tooth. The gutta percha is softened by heat and inserted into the root canal, where it hardens as it cools.[xxii]

Grades and qualities: United States Pharmacopeia grade (Gutta Percha USP):[xxiii] Residue on ignition: NMT 1.7%.

Java tea

Plant source: Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Fam. Lamiaceae).

Common names: Engl.: Java tea; Indonesian: koemis koetjing, kumis kuting; Malay: misai kucing, kumis kucing, remukjung; Myanmar: tha - gya - ma – gaik.

HS Code(s): HS1211.9090 (other medicinal plants).

Main exporting countries: Mainly Indonesia, although supply is available from Malaysia and Myanmar. Because it is classified under a general HS Code, specific trade data are not available. During 2002 to 2005, the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM) carried out a research project to determine the growth requirements of Java tea for cultivation. As of 2007, the Malaysian Herbal Corporation (MHC) is embarking on a massive herbal plantation project via its Herbal Valley Project that will include larger-scale cultivation of Java tea.

Forms used: Dried leaves and tops of stems.

Grades and qualities: European Pharmacopoeia grade (Orthosiphonis folium PhEur):[xxiv] Sinensetin: NLT 0.05% by HPLC; Foreign matter: NMT 5% of stems with a diameter greater than 1 mm; NMT 2% of other foreign matter; Loss on drying: NMT 11.0%; Total ash: NMT 12.5%.

Kaempferia galangal

Plant source(s): Kaempferia galangal L. (Fam. Zingiberaceae).

Common names: Chin.: shan nai; Engl: kaempferia galangal; Indonesian: kencur; Malay: cekur, kencur, chengkur; Myanmar: kun - sa – gamon.

HS Code(s): HS 1211.9042 (all galangal rhizomes and roots including greater galangal).

Main exporting countries: China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sudan. Global trade data are not available however data from some individual countries such as India is available. In 2005, India exported 360,980 kg of HS 1211.9042, which includes all species of galangal, mostly to the UAE (290,780 kg) with smaller amounts exported to Sri Lanka, Kuwait, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, and Iran. India also imported 184,120 kg of galangal in the 2005 season, mostly from China (154,000 kg), Indonesia (30,100 kg), and a minor amount from Thailand.

Forms used: Dried rhizome; expressed juice of fresh rhizome; dried or fresh leaf; dried flower.

Grades and qualities: Indonesian Institute of Sciences:[xxv] Foreign organic matter: NMT 2%; Total ash: NMT 8%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 2.2%; Water-soluble ash: None; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 14%; Dilute ethanol-soluble extractive: NLT 4%.

Malaysian Herbal Monograph:[xxvi] Water-soluble extractive: NLT 17% (hot method), NLT 14% (cold method); Ethanol-soluble extractive: NLT 0.8%; Moisture: NMT 18%.

Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China Grade (Rhizoma Kaempferiae PPRC; dried rhizome):[xxvii] Brownish or yellowish-brown color, aromatic and characteristic odor, pungent taste; Essential oil: NLT 4.5% (ml/g).

Mace

Plant source: Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Fam. Myristicaceae).

Common names: Engl.: mace; Sansk.: jaepatri.

HS Code(s): HS 0908.20 (dried arillus);

Main exporting countries: In terms of value, the top 5 exporters account for about 75% of total world exports; Indonesia (29%), Netherlands (16%), Grenada (12%), Singapore (12%), India (6%). Malaysia’s share of world exports is about 0.4%.

Forms used: Whole, broken or ground dried arillus; mace oil.

Grades and qualities: Food-grade or other non-therapeutic grade standards: American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) Cleanliness Specifications for Spices and Herbs; Government of India Mace Grading and Marking Rules 1997;[xxviii] European Spice Association (ESA) Specifications of Quality Minima for Herbs and Spices; International Organization for Standardization (ISO): ISO 6577:2002 (whole or broken nutmeg, and mace, whole or in pieces).

Mangosteen

Plant source: Garcinia mangostana L. (Fam. Clusiaceae).

Common names: Engl.: mangosteen; Indonesian: manggis; Malay: manggis, mesetor, sementah, semetah; Thai: mangkhut.

HS Code(s): HS 0804.5030 (fresh or dried fruit).

Main exporting countries: Thailand and Malaysia are the leading producers and exporters. Other sources include Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Philippines. Because mangosteen fruit is generally traded under a general 6-digit HS code that also includes quantities for guavas and mangos (HS 080450), specific global trade data is difficult to obtain. The Thai Minister of Agriculture and Cooperatives reports that Thailand is capable of producing about 200,000,000 kg of mangosteen fruit annually. In 2003, Thailand produced 203,800,000 kg but only a fraction of this is exported.[xxix] In 2003, Indonesia produced 79,000 tons of which 7,200 tons were exported.[xxx] The National Biotechnology Directorate, Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment, Malaysia, is funding a project to genetically engineer mangosteen for early flowering.

Forms used: Dried fruit rind; freeze-dried whole fruit and rind; dried or fresh fruit; powdered rind; extracts of rind; extracts of fruit (water soluble extracts standardized to 1% or 10% mangostin; cosmetic grade standardized to contain 40% mangostin); fruit juice; frozen fruit puree.

Grades and qualities: United States Pharmacopeia Dietary Supplement grade (USP-DS): As of 2007, a quality control monograph for mangosteen fruit is in development.

Noni

Plant source: Morinda citrifolia L. (Fam. Rubiaceae).

Common names: Bahasa Indonesia: pacel; Engl.: noni; Malay: mengkudu besar.

HS Code(s): HS 0810.90 (fruit). Note: Some sources classify the fruit under HS 1207 (other oil seeds & oleaginous fruits).

Main exporting countries: Hawaii (USA), Tahiti, Fiji, Vanuatu, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia. Because it is classified under a general HS Code, specific trade data are not available.

Forms used: Fruits; fruit juice; leaves; roots; extracts.

Grades and qualities: United States Pharmacopeia Dietary Supplement grade (USP-DS): As of 2007, a quality control monograph for noni fruit is in development.

Nutmeg

Plant source: Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Fam. Myristicaceae).

Common names: Chin.: rou dou kou; Engl.: nutmeg; Malay: pala; Sansk.: jatiphala, jaiphal.

HS Code(s): HS 0908.1010 (in shell); HS 0908.1020 (shelled); HS 3301.2932 (essential oil); HS 3301.9017 (extracted oleoresin).

Main exporting countries: In terms of value, the top 5 exporters account for about 75% of total world exports; Indonesia (29%), Netherlands (16%), Grenada (12%), Singapore (12%), India (6%). Malaysia’s share of world exports is about 0.4%.

Forms used: Endosperm of dried seeds (kernels of fruits), whole, cut or powdered; essential oil; extracted oleoresin.

Grades and qualities: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India grade (Jatiphala API; endosperm of dried seeds):[xxxi] Strong and aromatic odor, pungent and aromatic taste; Foreign matter: NMT 1%; Total ash: NMT 3%; Acid-insoluble ash” NMT 0.5%; Alcohol-soluble extractive: NLT 11%; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 7%; Ether-soluble extractive: NLT 5% (v/w); Essential oil: NLT 5% (v/w).

Malaysian Herbal Monograph:[xxxii] Brown color, characteristic aromatic odor, aromatic and slightly spice bitter taste; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 4.5% (hot method), NLT 4% (cold method); Ethanol-soluble extractive: NLT 2%; Moisture: NMT 12%.

Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China grade (Semen Myristicae PPRC; dried kernel):[xxxiii] Grayish-brown or grayish-yellow color, strongly aromatic odor, pungent taste; Water: NMT 10.0%; Essential oil: NLT 6.0% (ml/g).

Food-grade or other non-therapeutic grade standards: American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) Cleanliness Specifications for Spices and Herbs; Government of India Nutmeg Grading and Marking Rules 1995;[xxxiv] European Spice Association (ESA) Specifications of Quality Minima for Herbs and Spices; International Organization for Standardization (ISO): ISO 6577:2002 (whole or broken nutmeg, and mace, whole or in pieces).

Pepper

Plant source: Piper nigrum L. (Fam. Piperaceae).

Common names: Chin.: hu jiao; Engl.: black pepper; Malay: lada hitam; Sansk.: maricha.

HS Code(s): HS 0904.1120 (light black pepper); HS 0904.1130 (garbled black pepper); HS 0904.1140 (ungarbled black pepper); HS 0904.1150 (dehydrated green pepper); HS 0904.1160 (pepper pinheads); HS 0904.1170 (green pepper, frozen or dried); HS 0904.1180 (frozen pepper other than green); HS 0904.1190 (other pepper NESOI); HS 0904.1200 (pepper, crushed or ground); HS 3301.2935 (essential oil); HS 3301.9013 (extracted oleoresin).

Main exporting countries: For the five-year period 2002 through 2006, in terms of value, the 5 top exporters of Piper genus fruits have accounted for over 60% of total world exports; Indonesia (19.3%), Brazil (16.8%), Malaysia (9.1%), Singapore (8.8%), India (6.5%). In 2006, Malaysia exported 16,609,579 kg valued at $39,487,073. The main destinations for Malaysian Piper fruits are Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Other Asia NESOI, with lower amounts also exported to the USA, Germany, and the UK, among others.

Forms used: Dried and nearly ripe or ripe fruit, whole, cracked or ground; whole fresh or preserved fruits.

Grades and qualities: Malaysian Herbal Monograph:[xxxv] Black color, aromatic odor, hot bitter taste; Total ash: NMT 3.5%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 2%; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 23% (hot method), NLT 8% (cold method); Ethanol-soluble extractive: NLT 1.5%; Moisture: NMT 13%.

Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China grade (Fructus Piperis PPRC; dried and nearly ripe or ripe fruit):[xxxvi] Blackish-brown color, aromatic odor, pungent taste; Piperine: NLT 3.0% by HPLC.

Food-grade or other non-therapeutic grade standards: American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) Cleanliness Specifications for Spices and Herbs; Bureau of Indian Standards: IS 1798:1982 (whole and ground); European Spice Association (ESA) Specifications of Quality Minima for Herbs and Spices; German Institute for Standardization (DIN): DIN 10200-1 (black and white pepper); International Organization for Standardization (ISO): ISO 959-1:1998 (whole or ground).

Other Pepper: Cubeb (Piper cubeba L.) is native to Indonesia (Greater Sunda Islands) where it is cultivated as well as in India, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia. According to Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, the mature, dried fruits must contain NMT 2% foreign matter, NMT 8% total ash, NMT 1% acid-insoluble ash, NLT 14% alcohol-soluble extractive and NLT 11% water-soluble extractive.[xxxvii]

Javanese long pepper (Piper retrofractum Vahl.) is native to Indonesia, the Philippines, Viet Nam, and Malaysia, and is also cultivated in Southern India. According to the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, the dried stems must contain NMT 2% foreign matter, NMT 10% total ash, NMT 1.5% acid-insoluble ash, NLT 3% alcohol-soluble extractive and NLT 6% water-soluble extractive.[xxxviii]

Phyllanthus

Plant source: Phyllanthus niruri L. (Fam. Euphorbiaceae).

Common names: Engl.: phyllanthus; Malay: dukong anak; Sansk.: tamalaki.

HS Code(s): HS 1211.9090 (dried herb).

Main exporting countries: India. Other sources include Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Peru, among others. Because it is classified under a general HS Code, specific trade data are not available.

Forms used: Whole plant (excluding root); dried root, stem and leaf; extracts.

Grades and qualities: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India grade (Tamalaki API; root, stem and leaf):[xxxix] Indistinct odor, slightly bitter taste; Foreign matter: NMT 2%; Total ash: NMT 16%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 7%; Alcohol-soluble extractive: NLT 3%; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 13%.

Ringworm senna leaf

Plant source: Cassia alata L., syn.: Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fam. Fabaceae)

Common names: Bahasa Indonesia: ketepeng badak; Chin.: Engl.: ringworm senna (USA), ringworm bush (Australia); Malay: gelenggang besar, daun kurap; Myanmar: thinbaw - mezali

HS Code(s): HS 1211.9090 (dried leaf).

Main exporting countries: India, Malaysia, Myanmar. Because it is classified under a general HS Code, specific trade data are not available.

Forms used: Whole plant; dried leaf and seeds for preparing aqueous infusion.

Grades and qualities: Malaysian Herbal Monograph:[xl] Dark green color, unpleasant odor, no taste; Total ash: NMT 5%; Acid-insoluble ash: N MT 1.5%; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 25% (hot method), NLT 20% (cold method); Ethanol-soluble extractive: NLT 2%; Moisture: NMT 6%

Tongkat ali root

Plant source: Eurycoma longifolia Jack. (Fam. Simaroubaceae).

Common names: Bahasa Indonesia: pasak bumi; Malay: tongkat ali, penawar pahit; Vietnam: cay ba binh.

HS Code(s): HS 1211.9090 (dried root); HS 1302.19 (dried extracts).

Main exporting countries: Indonesia and Malaysia. Supply is also possible from Lao PDR, Thailand or Viet Nam. Tongkat ali is the highest volume wild collected medicinal plant species in Malaysia. In a supply and demand study by Idris and Haron (2001), it was estimated that about 21,000 kg were wild harvested annually and that domestic annual demand was about 54,189 kg by Malay traditional industries in Peninsular Malaysia. This estimate did not include demand from unregistered manufacturers as that data is unavailable.[xli] In the meantime, the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM) has been carrying out propagation research for scaling up to large-scale cultivation.

Forms used: Whole dried roots or sliced irregular roots; dried powdered roots; powdered extracts; aqueous extracts and beverage drinks.

Grades and qualities: Indonesian Institute of Sciences:[xlii] Grey-yellow to blackish color, odorless, slightly bitter taste; Foreign organic matter: NMT 2%; Total ash: NMT 3%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 2%; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 3%; Dilute ethanol-soluble extractive: NLT 1%.

Malaysian Herbal Monograph:[xliii] Yellowish-white color, very bitter taste; Total ash: NMT 4%; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 2%; (hot method), NLT 5% (cold method); Ethanol-soluble extractive: NLT 2%; Moisture: NMT 12%.

Forest Research Institute of Malaysia: In 2005, an FRIM research project to develop a protein map of tongkat ali was completed to be used as a reference map for determining the quality of extracts (impurity) obtaining from E. longifolia. This technology can be offered to clients interested in testing for impurities of E. longifolia extracts for quality control.

Turmeric

Plant source: Curcuma longa L. (Fam.: Zingiberaceae).

Common names: Chin.: jiang huang; Engl: turmeric; Malay: kunyit; Sansk: haridra.

HS Code(s): HS 0910.3010 (fresh turmeric); HS 0910.3020 (dried turmeric); HS 0910.3030 (powdered turmeric); HS 0910.3090 (other turmeric NESOI); HS 3301.2949 (essential oil); HS 3301.9014 (oleoresin).

Main exporting countries: India dominates the world market accounting for about 80% of total exports in value and volume. The next largest exporters are China, Indonesia, and Singapore. In 2006, Malaysia exported 140,089 kg, mainly to Singapore.

Forms used: Fresh or dried rhizome; powder from processed rhizome; essential oil; extracted oleoresin.

Grades and qualities: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India grade (Haridra API):[xliv] Yellow to yellowish-brown color, characteristic odor and taste; Foreign matter: NMT 2%; Total ash: NMT 9%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 1%; Alcohol-soluble extractive: NLT 8%; Water-soluble extractive: NL% 12%; Essential oil: NLT 4%.

Malaysian Herbal Monograph:[xlv] Bright yellow color, aromatic odor, pungent taste; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 19% (hot method), NLT 18% (cold method); Ethanol-soluble extractive: NLT 7%; Moisture: NMT 15%

Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China grade (Rhizoma Curcumae Longae PPRC):[xlvi] Dark yellow color, characteristic and aromatic odor, bitter and pungent taste; Water: NMT 16.0%; Total ash: NM% 7.0%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 1.0%; Ethanol-soluble extractives: NLT 12.0%; Essential oil: NL% 7.0%; Curcumin: NL% 1.0%.

Food-grade or other non-therapeutic grade standards: American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) Cleanliness Specifications for Spices and Herbs; Bureau of Indian Standards: IS 3576:1994 (whole), IS 10925:1984 (oleoresin); European Spice Association (ESA) Specifications of Quality Minima for Herbs and Spices; International Organization for Standardization (ISO): ISO 5566:1983 (whole or ground).

Other turmeric: Javanese turmeric (Indonesian: temu lawak), Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb., is native to Indonesia and cultivated in Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, and Java. According to the European Pharmacopoeia (Curcumae xanthorrhizae rhizome PhEur), the dried rhizome must contain NLT 50 ml/kg of essential oil and NLT 1.0% of dicinnamoyl methane derivatives expressed as curcumin. Temu pauh (Curcuma mangga Val. et Van Zijp) is cultivated in Java and Malaysia and its rhizome tips and young shoots are used as spices in Java.[xlvii]

West Indian lemongrass

Plant source: Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ex Nees) Stapf. (Fam. Poaceae).

Common names: Bahasa Indonesia: sereh; Engl.: West Indian lemongrass; Malay: serai makan, serai, serai dapur;  Sansk: kattrna.

HS Code(s): HS 1211.90 (dried leaf or dried whole plant); HS 3301.2990 (essential oil).

Main exporting countries: India, Viet Nam, Guatemala, Mexico, Egypt, Kenya, Tanzania. Because it is classified under a general HS Code, specific trade data are not available. As of 2007, the Malaysian Herbal Corporation (MHC) is embarking on a massive herbal plantation project via its Herbal Valley Project that will include larger-scale cultivation of West Indian lemongrass.

Forms used: Dried leaf; fresh or dried whole plant; essential oil.

Grades and qualities: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India grade (Kattrna API; dried whole plant):[xlviii] Lemon odor, bitter taste; Foreign matter: NMT: 2%; Total ash: NMT 11%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 6%; Alcohol-soluble extractive: NLT 5%; Water-soluble extractive: NLT 12%.

Ghana Herbal Pharmacopoeia grade (Lemon Grass GHP; dried leaves):[xlix] Dark green color, fragrant lemon-like odor, slightly hot, acrid taste; Stone cells: absent; Total ash: NMT 11%; Acid-insoluble ash: NMT 8.4%; Essential oil: NLT 0.75%.

[i] Convention on International Trade of Endangered Flora and Fauna. CITES Trade Database. Cambridge, UK: UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Available at: http://www.cites.org.

[ii] Convention on International Trade of Endangered Flora and Fauna. CITES list of national export quotas for 2007. Geneva, Switzerland: CITES: 25 May 2007. Available at: http://www.cites.org/common/quotas/2007/ExportQuotas2007.pdf

[iii] Convention on International Trade of Endangered Flora and Fauna. Review of Significant Trade: Aquilaria malaccensis. Geneva, Switzerland: CITES. November 2003; P.C. 14 Doc. 9.2.2, Annex 2. Available at: http://www.cites.org/eng/com/PC/14/E-PC14-09-02-02-A2.pdf

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[v] Indian Drug Manufacturers’ Association. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Revised New Edition 2002. Mumbai, India: Indian Drug Manufacturers’ Association. 2002.

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[xv] Government of India. Mixed Masala Powders Grading and Marking Rules 2000. Government of India. 2000. Available at: http://www.agmarknet.nic.in/MixedMasala.pdf

[xvi] Government of India Department of AYUSH. Kulanjana. In: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume V, First Edition. Delhi: India: The Controller of Publications. 2006;90-92.

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[xxv] Indonesian Institute of Sciences Research Center for Chemistry. Monograph: Kaempferia galangal L. 2001. Available at: http://www.kimia-lipi.net/medplants/index.php

[xxvi] Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Monograph Committee. 1999; Volume 1.

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[xxviii] Government of India. Mace Grading and Marking Rules 1997. Government of India. 1997. Available at: http://www.agmarknet.nic.in/mace.pdf.

[xxix] United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 7 CFR Parts 305 and 319: Importation of fruit from Thailand. Final rule. Federal Register. 21 June 2007;72(119):34163-34176.

[xxx] Dimyati A, Muharam A. Supply chain management of mangosteen in West Java: an attempt to establish a collaborative model. In: ISHS Acta Horticulture 699: I International Symposium on Improving the Performance of Supply Chains in the Transitional Economies. Leuven, Belgium: ISHS. 2006.

[xxxi] Government of India Department of AYUSH. Jatiphala. In: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume I, First Edition. Delhi: India: The Controller of Publications. 1989;53-54.

[xxxii] Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Monograph Committee. 1999; Volume 1.

[xxxiii] Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission. Semen Myristicae. In: Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, Volume I 2005. Beijing, China: People’s Medical Publishing House. 2005;295-296.

[xxxiv] Government of India. Nutmeg Grading and Marking Rules 1995. Government of India. 1996. Available at: http://www.agmarknet.nic.in/Nutmeggrading.pdf

[xxxv] Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Monograph Committee. 1999; Volume 1.

[xxxvi] Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission. Fructus Piperis. In: Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, Volume I 2005. Beijing, China: People’s Medical Publishing House. 2005;105-106.

[xxxvii] Government of India Department of AYUSH. Kankola. In: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume I, First Edition. Delhi: India: The Controller of Publications. 1989;58.

[xxxviii] Government of India Department of AYUSH. Cavya. In: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume II, First Edition. Delhi: India: The Controller of Publications. 1999;29.30.

[xxxix] Government of India Department of AYUSH. Tamalaki. In: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume I, First Edition. Delhi: India: The Controller of Publications. 1989;111-112.

[xl] Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Monograph Committee. 1999; Volume 1.

[xli] Mohd Azmi Muhammed Idris, Norini Haron. Supply and demand of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) plants with few others. Journal of Tropical Medicinal Plants. June 2001;2(1):145-154.

[xlii] Indonesian Institute of Sciences Research Center for Chemistry. Monograph: Eurycoma longifolia Jack. 2001. Available at: http://www.kimia-lipi.net/medplants/index.php

[xliii] Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Monograph Committee. 1999; Volume 1.

[xliv] Government of India Department of AYUSH. Haridra. In: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume I, First Edition. Delhi: India: The Controller of Publications. 1989;45-46.

[xlv] Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Monograph Committee. 1999; Volume 1.

[xlvi] Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission. Rhizoma Curcumae Longae. In: Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, Volume I 2005. Beijing, China: People’s Medical Publishing House. 2005;260-261.

[xlvii] Teuscher E (ed.), Brinckmann JA, Lindenmaier MP (translators). Medicinal Spices: A Handbook of Culinary Herbs, Spices, Spice Mixtures and Their Essential Oils. Stuttgart, Germany: Medpharm Scientific Publishers. 2006.

[xlviii] Government of India Department of AYUSH. Kattrna. In: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume V, First Edition. Delhi: India: The Controller of Publications. 2006;71-73.

[xlix] Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Lemon Grass. In: Ghana Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Accra, Ghana: The Advent Press. 1992;80-82.