APPENDIX 4: REFERENCES

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3 World Customs Organization. Harmonized System Convention. General Information. Available at: http://www.wcoomd.org/ie/En/Topics_Issues/topics_issues.html 4 E-mail correspondence with Nazimuddin Abdul Basir during June 2007.

5 Convention on International Trade of Endangered Flora and Fauna. CITES Trade Database. Cambridge, UK: UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Available at: http://www.cites.org .

6 Convention on International Trade of Endangered Flora and Fauna. CITES list of national export quotas for 2007. Geneva, Switzerland: CITES: 25 May 2007. Available at: http://www.cites.org/common/quotas/2007/ExportQuotas2007.pdf

7 Convention on International Trade of Endangered Flora and Fauna. Review of Significant Trade: Aquilaria malaccensis. Geneva, Switzerland: CITES. November 2003; P.C. 14 Doc. 9.2.2, Annex 2. Available at: http://www.cites.org/eng/com/PC/14/E-PC14-09-02-02-A2.pdf

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9 Indian Drug Manufacturers‘ Association. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Revised New Edition 2002. Mumbai, India: Indian Drug Manufacturers‘ Association. 2002.

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16 United States Pharmacopeia Convention. United States Pharmacopeia – National Formulary (USP 30-NF 25). Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeia Convention. 2007.

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18 Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Monograph Committee. 1999; Volume 1.

19 Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission.  Flos Caryophylli. In: Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, Volume I 2005. Beijing, China: People‘s Medical Publishing House. 2005;56-57.

20 Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission.  Fructus Caryophylli. In: Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, Volume I 2005. Beijing, China: People‘s Medical Publishing House. 2005;87.

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23 Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Monograph Committee. 1999; Volume 1.

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26 Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission. Herba Centellae. In: Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, Volume I 2005. Beijing, China: People‘s Medical Publishing House. 2005;124-125.

27 Iqbal M. Trade restrictions affecting international trade in non-wood forest products. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1995. Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/V9631E/V9631E00.htm

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29 United States Pharmacopeia Convention. United States Pharmacopeia – National Formulary (USP 30-NF 25). Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeia Convention. 2007.

30 European Pharmacopoeia Commission. Orthosiphonis folium. In: European Pharmacopoeia, 5th edition. Strasbourg, France: European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HeatlhCare. 2006.

31 Indonesian Institute of Sciences Research Center for Chemistry. Monograph: Kaempferia galangal L. 2001. Available at: http://www.kimia-lipi.net/medplants/index.php

32 Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Monograph Committee. 1999; Volume 1.

33 Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission. Rhizoma Kaempferiae. In: Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, Volume I 2005. Beijing, China: People‘s Medical Publishing House. 2005;271.

34 Government of India. Mace Grading and Marking Rules 1997. Government of India. 1997. Available at: http://www.agmarknet.nic.in/mace.pdf .

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37 Government of India Department of AYUSH. Jatiphala. In: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume I, First Edition. Delhi: India: The Controller of Publications. 1989;53-54.

38 Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Monograph Committee. 1999; Volume 1.

39 Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission. Semen Myristicae. In: Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, Volume I 2005. Beijing, China: People‘s Medical Publishing House. 2005;295-296.

40 Government of India. Nutmeg Grading and Marking Rules 1995. Government of India. 1996. Available at: http://www.agmarknet.nic.in/Nutmeggrading.pdf

41 Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Monograph Committee. 1999; Volume 1.

42 Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission. Fructus Piperis. In: Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, Volume I 2005. Beijing, China: People‘s Medical Publishing House. 2005;105-106.

43 Government of India Department of AYUSH. Kankola. In: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume I, First Edition. Delhi: India: The Controller of Publications. 1989;58.

44 Government of India Department of AYUSH. Cavya. In: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume II, First Edition. Delhi: India: The Controller of Publications. 1999;29.30.

45 Government of India Department of AYUSH. Tamalaki. In: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume I, First Edition. Delhi: India: The Controller of Publications. 1989;111-112.

46 Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Monograph Committee. 1999; Volume 1.

47 Mohd Azmi Muhammed Idris, Norini Haron. Supply and demand of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) plants with few others. Journal of Tropical Medicinal Plants. June 2001;2(1):145-154.

48 Indonesian Institute of Sciences Research Center for Chemistry. Monograph: Eurycoma longifolia Jack. 2001. Available at: http://www.kimia-lipi.net/medplants/index.php

49 Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Monograph Committee. 1999; Volume 1.

50 Government of India Department of AYUSH. Haridra. In: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume I, First Edition. Delhi: India: The Controller of Publications. 1989;45-46.

51 Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Monograph Committee. 1999; Volume 1.

52 Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission. Rhizoma Curcumae Longae. In: Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, Volume I 2005. Beijing, China: People‘s Medical Publishing House. 2005;260-261.

53 Teuscher E (ed.), Brinckmann JA, Lindenmaier MP (translators). Medicinal Spices: A Handbook of Culinary Herbs, Spices, Spice Mixtures and Their Essential Oils. Stuttgart, Germany: Medpharm Scientific Publishers. 2006. 54 Government of India Department of AYUSH. Kattrna. In: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume V, First Edition. Delhi: India: The Controller of Publications. 2006;71-73.

55 Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Lemon Grass. In: Ghana Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Accra, Ghana: The Advent Press. 1992;80-82.

56 Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 21 CFR, Ch I, Part 872 Dental Devices: Subpart D Prosthetic Devices: §872.3850 Gutta Percha. In: Code of Federal Regulations. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration. 1 April 2006;342.

57 Iqbal M. Trade restrictions affecting international trade in non-wood forest products. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1995. Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/V9631E/V9631E00.htm

58 Convention on International Trade of Endangered Flora and Fauna. CITES list of national export quotas for 2007. Geneva, Switzerland: CITES: 25 May 2007. Available at: http://www.cites.org/common/quotas/2007/ExportQuotas2007.pdf

59 ProFound Advisers in Development in collaboration with Jones A and Dürbeck K. CBI Market Survey: The natural ingredients for cosmetics market in the EU. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Development Countries (CBI). September 2006.

60 International Trade Centre (ITC) / United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Market Access Map. Available at: http://www.intracen.org/mas/mac.htm .

61 ProFound Advisers in Development, in collaboration with Jones A and Dürbeck K. CBI Market Survey: The natural ingredients for cosmetics market in the EU. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries (CBI). September 2006.

62 ProFound Advisers in Development, in collaboration with Jones A and Dürbeck K. CBI Market Survey: The natural ingredients for cosmetics market in the EU. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries (CBI). September 2006.

63 Mohd Azmi Muhammed Idris, Norini Haron. Supply and demand of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) plants with few others. Journal of Tropical Medicinal Plants. June 2001;2(1):145-154.

64 Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia. Vision, Mission, Objective. FDPM Official Website. Available at: http://www.forestry.gov.my/eMission.html

65 International Standard for the Sustainable Wild Collection of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (ISSC-MAP). Available at: http://www.floraweb.de/proxy/floraweb/map-pro .

66 Swiss Import Promotion Organization (SIPPO). FairWild Standard and Certification. Available at: http://www.fairwild.org .

67 Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Development Countries (CBI). Market Access Requirements in CBI’s Market Information Database. Rotterdam, Netherlands: CBI. Available at: http://www.cbi.nl .

68 Krier JM. Fair Trade in Europe 2005: Facts and Figures on Fair Trade in 25 European Countries. Published by Fairtrade Labelling Organizations (FLO), International Fair Trade Association (IFAT), Network of European World Shops (NEWS!), and European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). June 2005. Available at: http://www.fairtrade.net/uploads/media/FairTradeinEurope2005.pdf .

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70 Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO). Fairtrade Standards for Cocoa for Small Farmers‘ Organizations. Bonn, Germany: FLO. 2005. Available at: http://www.fairtrade.net/fileadmin/user_upload/content/Cocoa_SF_Dec_05_EN.pdf

71 Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO). Fairtrade Standards for Herbs and Spices for Small Farmers‘ Organizations. Bonn, Germany: FLO. 2007. Available at: http://www.fairtrade.net/fileadmin/user_upload/content/Herbs_and_Spices_SF_May_07_EN.pdf .

72 Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO). Fairtrade Standards for Tea for Small Farmers‘ Organizations. Bonn, Germany: FLO. 2007. Available at: http://www.fairtrade.net/fileadmin/user_upload/content/Tea_SF_March_06_EN.pdf

73 Swiss Import Promotion Organization (SIPPO). FairWild Standard and Certification. Available at: http://www.fairwild.org .

74 Medicinal Plant Specialist Group. International Standard for Sustainable Wild Collection of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (ISSC-MAP). Version 1.0. Bonn, Gland, Frankfurt, and Cambridge (BfN-Skripten 195): Bundesamt für Naturschutz (BfN), MPSG/SSC/IUCN, WWF Germany, and TRAFFIC. January 2007. Available at: http://www.floraweb.de/proxy/floraweb/MAP-pro/Standard_Version1_0.pdf .

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79 World Health Organization. WHO Guidelines on Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) for Medicinal Plants. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. 2003. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2003/9241546271.pdf 80 European Medicines Agency (EMEA) Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC). Guideline on Good Agricultural and Collection Practice (GACP) for Starting Materials of Herbal Origin. London, UK: EMEA HMPC. February 2006. Available at: http://www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/human/hmpc/24681605en.pdf .

81 European Medicines Agency (EMEA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use (CVMP). Guideline on Specifications: Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for Herbal Substances, Herbal Preparations, and Herbal Medicinal Products / Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products. London, UK: EMEA CHMP CVMP. March 2006. Available at: http://www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/human/qwp/282000en.pdf .

82 European Herbal Infusions Association (EHIA). EHIA Compendium of EHIA Guidelines: Foodstuff Specifications for Herbal Infusion Products. Hamburg, Germany: EHIA. 2000. Available at:       http://www.ehia-online.org/documents/foodstuff_specifications_for_herbal_infusion_products.pdf .

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84 European Spice Association (ESA). ESA Quality Minima Document. Bonn, Germany: ESA. 2004. Available at: http://www.esa-spices.org/content/pdfs/ESAQualityMinimaDocument191104.pdf .

85 European Spice Association (ESA). ESA Advise on Illegal Dyes. Bonn, Germany: ESA. 2006. Available at  http://www.esa-spices.org/content/pdfs/ESA%20Advice_rev2_June2006.pdf.

86 European Medicines Agency (EMEA) Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC). Guideline on Good Agricultural and Collection Practice (GACP) for Starting Materials of Herbal Origin. London, UK: EMEA HMPC. February 2006. Available at: http://www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/human/hmpc/24681605en.pdf .

87 World Health Organization. WHO Guidelines on Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) for Medicinal Plants. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. 2003. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2003/9241546271.pdf

88 International Trade Centre (ITC) / United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Market Access Map. Available at: http://www.intracen.org/mas/mac.html .

89 Food and Drug Administration. 21 CFR Part 111: Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP) in Manufacturing, Packing, or Holding Dietary Ingredients and Dietary Supplements. Final Rule. Federal Register. 25 June 2007;21(121): 34751-34958. Available at: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/fr07625a.html .

90 Food and Drug Administration. Testing and approval or rejection of components, drug product containers, and closures. In. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Volume 4, Chapter I, Part 211, Subpart E, Section §211.84. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access. 1 April 2007;140-141. Available at: http://a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/26mar20071500/edocket.access.gpo.gov/cfr_2007/aprqtr/pdf/21cfr211.84.pdf

91 American Herbal Products Association (AHPA). AHPA Code of Ethics & Business Conduct. Silver Spring, MD: American Herbal Products Association. July 2006. Available at: http://www.ahpa.org/Portals/0/pdfs/AHPA_CodeOfEthics.pdf .

92 Mohd Azmi Muhammed Idris, Norini Haron. Supply and demand of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) plants with few others. Journal of Tropical Medicinal Plants. June 2001;2(1):145-154.

93 Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia. Vision, Mission, Objective. FDPM Official Website. Available at: http://www.forestry.gov.my/eMission.html

94 International Standard for the Sustainable Wild Collection of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (ISSC-MAP). Available at: http://www.floraweb.de/proxy/floraweb/map-pro .

95 American Herbal Products Association (AHPA) and American Herbal Pharmacopoeia. AHPA-AHP Good Agricultural and Collection Practice (GACP) for Herbal Raw Materials. Silver Spring, MD: American Herbal Products Association. December 2006. Available at: http://www.ahpa.org/portals/0/pdfs/06_1208_AHPA-AHP_GACP.pdf

96 Swiss Import Promotion Organization (SIPPO). FairWild Standard and Certification. Available at: http://www.fairwild.org .

97 TransFair USA. TransFair USA Almanac 1998-2006. Oakland: TransFair USA. 2007. Available at: http://www.transfairusa.org/pdfs/2007FairTradeAlmanac.pdf .

98 International Fair Trade Association (IFAT). IFAT Annual Report 2006. Culemborg, Netherlands: IFAT. 2007. Available at: http://www.ifat.org .

99 Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency. Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library .

100 Hey B. Natural shoppers convert to kosher, halal foods. Natural Foods Merchandiser. 3 January 2004;25(3):80,84.

101 Chartier K. Business strategies: Certifications build, enhance consumer confidence. Natural Products Insider.  14 November 2006.

102 American Herbal Products Association (AHPA) and American Herbal Pharmacopoeia. AHPA-AHP Good Agricultural and Collection Practice (GACP) for Herbal Raw Materials. Silver Spring, MD: American Herbal Products Association. December 2006. Available at: http://www.ahpa.org/portals/0/pdfs/06_1208_AHPA-AHP_GACP.pdf

103 McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO (eds.). American Herbal Products Association’s Herbs of Commerce, 2nd Edition. Silver Spring MD: American Herbal Products Association. 2000.

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107 McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO (eds.). American Herbal Products Association’s Herbs of Commerce, 2nd Edition. Silver Spring, MD: American Herbal Products Association. 2000.

108 U.S. Customs Service. Marking of Country of Origin on U.S. Imports. Acceptable Terminology and Methods for Marking. Washington, DC: U.S. Customs Service.

109 American Herbal Products Association (AHPA) and American Herbal Pharmacopoeia. AHPA-AHP Good Agricultural and Collection Practice (GACP) for Herbal Raw Materials. Silver Spring, MD: American Herbal Products Association. December 2006. Available at: http://www.ahpa.org/portals/0/pdfs/06_1208_AHPA-AHP_GACP.pdf

110 International Trade Centre (ITC) / United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Market Access Map. Available at: http://www.intracen.org/mas/mac.htm .

111 ProFound Advisers in Development, in collaboration with Jones A and Dürbeck K. CBI Market Survey: The natural ingredients for cosmetics market in the EU. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries (CBI). September 2006.

112 Brinckmann J. The United States Market for Natural Ingredients used in Dietary Supplements and Cosmetics with Highlights on Selected Andean Products. Geneva, Switzerland: International Trade Centre (ITC) UNCTAD / WTO and BioTrade Facilitation Programme (BTFP) UNCTAD / ITC. 2003.

113 ProFound Advisers in Development, in collaboration with Jones A and Dürbeck K. CBI Market Survey: The natural ingredients for cosmetics market in the EU. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries (CBI). September 2006.

114 United States Department of State Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. Background Note: Malaysia. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of State. May 2007. 115 Mohd Azmi Muhammed Idris, Norini Haron. Supply and demand of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) plants with few others. Journal of Tropical Medicinal Plants. June 2001;2(1):145-154.

116 Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia. Vision, Mission, Objective. FDPM Official Website. Available at: http://www.forestry.gov.my/eMission.html

117 International Standard for the Sustainable Wild Collection of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (ISSC-MAP). Available at: http://www.floraweb.de/proxy/floraweb/map-pro .

118 Clute R. Market Overview 2007: Retailers evolve in diverse climates. Natural Foods Merchandiser. June 2007;20-24.

119 Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO). Fairtrade Standards for Cocoa for Small Farmers‘ Organizations. Bonn, Germany: FLO. 2005. Available at: http://www.fairtrade.net/fileadmin/user_upload/content/Cocoa_SF_Dec_05_EN.pdf

120 Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO). Fairtrade Standards for Herbs and Spices for Small Farmers‘ Organizations. Bonn, Germany: FLO. 2007. Available at: http://www.fairtrade.net/fileadmin/user_upload/content/Herbs_and_Spices_SF_May_07_EN.pdf .

121 Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO). Fairtrade Standards for Tea for Small Farmers‘ Organizations. Bonn, Germany: FLO. 2007. Available at: http://www.fairtrade.net/fileadmin/user_upload/content/Tea_SF_March_06_EN.pdf

122 Swiss Import Promotion Organization (SIPPO). FairWild Standard and Certification. Available at: http://www.fairwild.org

123 Bradley K. Fruits of the future? Natural Products Insider. 12 March 2007.

124 Saref A. Lifestyle choices fuel niche supplements market. Natural Foods Merchandiser. June 2007;52-53.

125 Molyneaux M. Integrated herbal supplement users: their pathways to usage. HerbalGram. 2006;68(70):68-69.