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Chrysanthemum coronarium L.

Chrysanthemum coronarium L.

Family

Compositae

Synonyms

Matricaria coronaria (L.) Desr., Pinardia coronaria Lessing, Chrysanthemum spatiosum L.H.Bailey.

Vernacular Names

English Garland chrysanthemum, crown daisy, tangho (from Chinese).
Indonesia Tango, saruni walanda (West Java).
Philippines Tango (Tagalog).
Laos Tang 'ôô.
Thailand Phaktang-o (Central), phakkhikhwai (Northern).
Vietnam c[ar]i c[us]c, c[us]c t[aaf]n [oo].
American Shungiku (from Japanese), chop suey green, Japanese green.
French Chrysanthème des jardins.

Geographical Distributions

Chrysanthemum coronarium is native to the Mediterranean region and is distributed throughout Europe, northern Africa, and Asia. It has long been cultivated in Europe and Asia, but for different purposes: in the western world mainly as an ornamental, in Asia (China, Japan) mainly as a vegetable. In southeast Asia, the vegetable types were probably introduced from China relatively recently, as the Chinese-derived name 'tangho' has remained strongly associated with the crop in most countries.

 

Description

C. coronarium is an erect, densely leafy, branched, annual herb that can grow up to measure 20-60 cm tall in the vegetative stage and up to measure about 90 cm when flowering.

The leaves are arranged alternate, semi-amplexicaul, oblong to obovate  in outline, with a size of measuring 3-13 cm x 1-4 cm, variably incised from entire to 2-pinnatisect (most usual form) with oblong, lance-shaped or linear in shape, incise-dentate segments or lobes.

The inflorescence is a head and it is measure 3-6 cm in diametre. The measuring  2-5 cm long peduncle is ribbed. The involucral bracts are in 2-4 rows and with scarious margins. The ray flowers (marginal) are 12-15, only female, oblong ligule, measuring 1-1.5 cm x 5-8 mm, emarginate at the apex and yellow. The disk flowers (central) are numerous, bisexual, with 4-5 mm long tubular petals. It is yellow and 5-lobed at the top.

The fruit is a glandular, more or less turbinate achene, measure 2-3 mm long and without pappus. In marginal flowers it is with 3 wings and 6-ribbed while in the central flowers it is with 1 wing and 10-ribbed.

 

Ecology / Cultivation

C. coronarium grows best in cool temperate climates, but it does well at higher elevations in the tropics. Some cultivars even tolerate light frost. Temperatures should not exceed 25°C, as the crop will produce few leaves and will flower early.

C. coronarium seems to be photoperiod-insensitive, flowering readily at temperate and tropical latitudes. It grows relatively well at low light levels. It suffers from very wet conditions or heavy rainfall. Fertile, moisture-retentive soils are preferred, but it is not very demanding of soil type.

 

Line Drawing / Photograph

Chrysanthemum_coronarium

References

    1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 8: Vegetables.

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