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Canarium vulgare Leenh.

Canarium vulgare Leenh.




Canarium commune Leenh.


Vernacular Names

Malaysia Pokok kenari, rata kukana (Peninsular).
English Java almond.
Indonesia Kanari (General), ki tuwak (Java), jal (Ambon).
French Amande de Java.

Geographical Distributions

The Kangean and Bawean Islands, the Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, the Moluccas and New Guinea. Possibly naturalised elsewhere in the Malesian region. Planted throughout the tropics for its fruits.



Canarium vulgare is a large tree measuring up to 45 m tall. The bole is often gnarled in cultivated specimens. It is branchless for up to measure 20 m, measuring up to 70 cm in diametre and up to measure 3 m high buttresses. The bark surface is pale grayish in colour  while the inner bark exudes clear or whitish resin. The stipules are caducous, inserted at the leaf axil and oblong.

The leaves are with (5-)9-11 leaflets. The leaflets are gradually to distinctly long-acuminate at the apex, entire margin, smooth and with 12-15 pairs of secondary veins which are slightly prominent below.

The inflorescence is terminal and broadly paniculate. The male flowers are measure 5 mm long while the female ones are 6-7(-12) mm long. The stamens are 6.

The fruit is ovoid in shape, circular to slightly trigonous in cross-section, with a size of measuring 35-50 mm x 15-30 mm and it is smooth.


Ecology / Cultivation

C. vulgare occurs locally gregariously in primary forest on limestone, up to 1200 m altitude. The density of the wood is 480-680 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content.


Line Drawing / Photograph



    1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(2): Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers.

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