Cosmos caudatus


Bidens berterianus Spreng., Bidens artemisiaedolus caudatus (HBK) Ktze. [3] 

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia: Ulam Raja
Indonesia: Kenikir, Pelampong, Radamindang, Randa Midang, Semikir, Dewadaru (Central Java), Ulam Raja (Malay)
Thailand: Daoruang-phama, Khamhae
Philippines: Turay-turay (Aklanon, Cebuano); Tuktukaw (Bontoc); Cosmos (Tagalog)
English: Cosmos
French: Cosmos
German: Cosmos
Greek: Kosmos
Italian: Cosmea Caudate
Portuguese: Cosmos
Spanish: Cosmos, Estrella de Mar [1] [2]

General Information


Cosmos caudatus is a member of the Asteraceae family. It is an erect annual herb that can reach up to 2m high. The stems are slender, terete, glabrous to sparsely pubescent. The leaves measures 20cm long, 2-3 pinnatisect with each segment being lanceolate to 6mm broad, acute, aristate, margins entire, ciliate. The peduncles are slender, and elongate. The flower heads 1-3 in an open cluster. The heads radiate, outer involucral bracts are 8, linear-subulate to lanceolate, acute measures 8-11mm long. The ray florets are mostly pink measuring 10-15mm long, the limb entire or 2-3 denticulate at the apex. The corollas are yellow measuring 5-6mm long. The achenes are mostly black measuring 1-3mm long, fusiform, compressed, slightly curved, the upper 1/3 produced into a brown, ascending-strigose beak, pappus awns 2, slender, diverging, retrorsely barbed measuring 2.5-4mm long. [3]

Plant Part Used

Whole plant [1] [5]

Chemical Constituents

Quercetin 3-O-β- arabinofuranoside; quercetin 3-O-α-rhamnoside; quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside; and quercetin [4]

Traditional Used:

Not much has been mentioned about this plant being used as medicine even in its native countries i.e. South America. It has been said that the plant was introduced to the Philippines by the Spaniards who had used it as a vegetable during their long voyage. It has spread throughout Southeast Asia as a vegetable due to its aromatic characters and its agreeable taste to the Malays. [1] [5] [6] 

There is mentioned of the plant having a sweet taste and cooling character and is considered a blood purifier, tonic for the muscles and can strengthen the bones. In the Malay traditions of ulam consumption, C. caudatus is considered as an appetite stimulant due to its sweet and bitter aromatic taste. [1] [5]

Pre-Clinical Data


Antioxidant activity

Cosmos caudatus has been found to have a very potent antioxidant activity to the tune of 2,400mg/l ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) per 100g of fresh samples. This activity is attributed to the presence of a number of proanthocyanidins that existed as dimmers through hexamers, quercetin glycosides, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, crypto-chrologenic acids and (+)-catching. [7] In a screening exercise of 21 tropical herbs for their antioxidant activity, C. caudatus proved to be the most potent. [8]


No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation


No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation


Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation



No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

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  1) Botanical Info


  1. Hariana HA., Tumbuhan Obat dan Khasiatnya 2, Niaga Swadaya, Jakarta 2008, pg. 48 – 49.
  2. Kays SJ., Cultivated Vegetables of the World: A Multilingual Onomasticon, Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen 2011, pg. 83.
  3. Liogier AH. Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: Acanthaceae to Compositae, Universidad de Puerto Rico 1997, pg. 266.
  4. Abas, Faridah. Phytochemical and Biological Activity Studies of Cosmos Caudatus and Curcuma Mangga and the Online Characterization of Bioactive Fractions from Melicope ptelefolia. PhD thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia. 2005.
  5. Ong HC. Sayuran Khasiat Makanan & Ubatan, Utusan Publications and Distributors Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpu 2003, pg. 134.
  6. Burkill IH., A Dictionary of Economic Products of Malay Peninsula, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Kuala Lumpur 1966, pg. 679 – 680.
  7. Shui G, Leong LP, Wong SP. Rapid screening and characterisation of antioxidants of Cosmos caudatus using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 Nov 15;827(1):127-38. Epub 2005 Aug 8.
  8. Mustafa RA, Abdul Hamid A, Mohamed S, Bakar FA. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and radical scavenging activity of 21 selected tropical plants. J Food Sci. 2010 Jan-Feb;75(1):C28-35.