Codiaeum variegatum

Synonyms

Croton variegatum Linn. [3]

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia: Pokok Puding, Puding Mas
English: Bombay Laurel, Croton, Garden Croton
Indonesia: Tarimas, Silastom, Nasalou, Pudieng (Sumatra); Purineg, Karoton, Katomas (Java); Demung, Purineg, Daun garida (Nusa Tenggara); Uhung, Dolok (Kalimantan); Dendiki, Kajondom, Kalabumbang, Dudi, Leleme, Kelet, Kendeng Disik, Nunukobalaano, Baleya Sumangga, Dahengora, Mendem (Sulawesi); Susurite, Salusalu, Fute, Ai haru, Sisinte, Siri-siri, Goliho, Dahengaro, Salubota, Dahengora, Daliho (Maluku); Abam, Kama (Irian)
Thailand: Kohson
Philippines: San Francisco (Tagalog); Kila, Kilala-puti (Tausug); Kalipayan, Kalipayang (Cebuano)
Vietnam: Ku Kieng
China: Bian Ye Mu
Japan: Henyo-boku
German:

Indischer Lorbeer, Indischer Wunderstrauch

Fiji: Sacasaca [1] [2] [3] [4]

General Information

Description

Codiaeum variegatum is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family. It is a shrub which can grow up to 5m high. The leaves are simple, alternate with petiole measuring up to 2cm long. Stipules are present, measuring up to 2cm long, and linear. The leaf-blade is strap-shaped, acute or apiculate at the tip and acute and decurrent at the base. The leaves measure between 25-30cm long and 1-5cm wide, reddish or mottlesd with various shades of green with margins entire and revolute. [1] [2] 

Plant Part Used

Leaves, young twigs, roots and bark [1] [2]

Chemical Constituents

2-(3,4,5)-trihydroxy-6-hydroxymethyltetrahydropyran-2-yloxymethyl)acrylonitrile. [5]

Traditional Used:

The plant is traditionally considered bitter, cooling and toxic. It stimulates circulation and is a diaphoretic. The roots and barks are pungent. 

Dermatogolical conditions 

The milky sap of the plant is considered an irritant to the skin, yet in the Fijian Islands decoction of the bark is used to treat eczema, psoriasis and allergies and in Indonesia the leaves are used in the treatment of eczema. [1] [2]

Other uses

The leaves are considered diaphoretic and used in the treatment of fever. The young twigs are anthelmintic and an appetite stimulant. The root and bark are used in the treatment of syphilis, constipation, stomachache, loss of appetite and dysuria. In the Fiji Islands the leaves are used to treat fish poisoning and gonorrhea. [1] [2]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Antiviral activity

In the chromatographic fraction of C. variegatum is a cyanoglucoside identified as 2-(3,4,5)-trihydroxy-6-hydroxymethyltetrahydropyran-2-yloxymethyl)acrylonitrile. This compound displayed virucidal activity against influenza A virus (FLUAV) without impairment of haemagglutination properties. [5] 

Tumour promoting activity

C. variegatum was one of the plants out of 48 species of Euphorbiaceae that exhibited tumour promoting activities. It showed EBV inducing acitivity at as low as 0.2 to 1.2mg/ml of the plant extract in cell culture. [6]

Toxicities

Contact dermatitis due to allergen. [7]

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

Codiaeum variegatum is known to cause contact dermatitis amongst nursery workers. It was found that within the methanolic extract of the leaves lie the allergens. The allergens had not been identified individually as yet. [7] 

It would be good if this plant is not used as ornamentals in house landscaping because of the allergenic properties found and the tumour promoting activity as cited above.

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

  1. Cambie RC., Ash J. Fijian Medicinal Plants CSIRO Australia 1994; pg. 123.
  2. Dalimartha S. Atlas Tumbohan Obat 5 Niaga Swadaya Jakarta 2008; pg. 142 – 143.
  3. Buttner R. Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops Springer 2001; pg. 1211.
  4. Seidemann C. World Spice Plants Springer Berlin 2005; pg. 113.
  5. Forero JE, Avila L, Taborda N, Tabares P, López A, Torres F, Quiñones W, Bucio MA, Mora-Pérez Y, Rugeles MT, Joseph-Nathan P, Echeverri F. In vitro anti-influenza screening of several Euphorbiaceae species: structure of a bioactive Cyanoglucoside from Codiaeum variegatum. Phytochemistry. 2008 Nov;69(16):2815-9. Epub 2008 Oct 11.
  6. Norhanom AW, Yadav M. Tumour promoter activity in Malaysian Euphorbiaceae. Br J Cancer. 1995 Apr;71(4):776-9.
  7. Hausen BM, Schulz KH. Occupational contact dermatitis due to croton (Codiaeum variegatum (L.) A. Juss var. pictum (Lodd.) Muell. Arg.). Sensitization by plants of the Euphorbiaceae. Contact Dermatitis. 1977 Dec;3(6):289-92.