Cordyline fruticosa

Synonyms

Convallaria fruitcosa L. ex Stickm., Asparagus terminalis Linn., Dracaena ferrea Linn., Dracaena terminalis (Linn.) Linn., Cordyline cannaefolia R. Br., Cordyline terminalis (Linn.) Kunth, Cordyline ti Schott., Cordyline eschscholziana Mart. ex. J.H. Schult, Cordyline heliconiaefolia Otto & Dietr., Cordyline sieberi Kunth, Cordyline javanica Klotzsch ex Kunth, Cordyline australis Nadedaud & Jouan, Cordyline manners-suttoniae F. Muell, Cordyline hedychiodes F. Muell, Cordyline sepiaria Seem, Cordyline ferrea K.Koch, Cordyline regina Vietch ex Regel, Dracaena gloriosa Linden ex. E. Morr., Cordyline gloriosa Linden & Andre, Dracaena bellula Linden & Andre, Dracaena cooperi et D. esculenta Baker, Taetsia terminalis (Linn.) W.F. Wight, Taetsia fruticosa (Linn.) Merr. [3]

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia: Andong, Juang, Jenjuang, Senjuang 
Indonesia: Bak juang, Lak-lak, Kalinjuhang, Linjuang, Katunggal, Anjiluang, Lanjuang, Linjuwang, Anderuang, Renjuwang, Sabang, Sawang (Sumatra); Hanjuang, Andong, Endong, Kayu urip (Jawa); Andong, Endonh, Handwang (Nusa Tenggara); Renjuang, Sabang (Kalimantan); Tabongo, Panili, Siri, Panyaureng, Siri (Sulawesi); Ai buru, Weluga, Wersingin, Werusisi, Pitako (Maluku); Kotapari, Ngasi, Jasir (Irian) 
Thailand: Maak Phuu, Maak Mia 
Philippines:  Tungkadi Pari; Baston de San Jose, Sagilala, Tongkod Obispo
Papua New Guinea: Aegop (Wola tribe); Masau (Tok Pisin Tribe); Kava, Kautbu (sepik); Si’I (manus Island); Bauga (Northern Province); Elaivi (Central Province); Ta’un, ariko (Bougainville)
Tonga Islands: Si Si Tongotongo 
Fiji: Vasili, Qai, Ti, Masawe, Kokotodamu 
Cook Islands: Rau Ti 
China: Ya Zhu Na 
English:

Good Luck Plant, Chinese Fire Leaf, Palm lily, Hawaiian Good Luck Plant, King of Kings 

Dutch: Limiestriuk 
German: Endstandige Keulenlilie, Endstandige Kolbenlilie 
Brazil (Portuguese): Croton 
Colombia: Palmita Roja
Ivory Coast: Essul Ahrana
Hawaii: Ti 
Tahiti: Auti 
New Zealand: Ti pore [1] [2] [3] [4] [6] 

General Information

Description

Cordyline fruticosa is a member of the Asteliaceae family. It is a perennial shrub which can reach up to 4m high. The stem is erect, slender with horseshoe-shaped scars of fallen leaf stalk. The leaves are alternate, spiraled, and mostly clustered at top of the stem. The petiole measures 4-20cm long, narrow, sharply differentiated from the blade with the base clasping the stem. The leaf blade measures 14-57cm long and 3-14cm wide, strap-shaped, lanceolate with tips bluntly pointed, colours varying with different cultivars ranging from green to pink, maroon to dark maroon and sometimes variegated. The midrib is pronounced and the stalk is deeply grooved. The veins runs parallel. The flowers are small white, yellow or red in colour. They are radially symmetrical, crowded on a branched inflorescence. The flowering stem measures 30-70cm long, often red. The fruits are in clusters, small, round red fleshy berries and containing three seeds. [1]

Plant Part Used

Leaves, stem and roots [3] [4] [5] [6]

Chemical Constituents

5b-spirostanes; calcium oxalate; cholestane glycosides; flavonoid; fructan; imidazole alkaloids; iron; lenoleic acid; polyphenol; polysaccharides; saponins; sarsasapogenins; smilagenin; sterols; tannin; tyramine. [4] [6] [10]

Traditional Used:

C. fruticosa is considered sweet, cooling and haemostatic. 

Haemostatic uses

C. fruticosa is used in the treatment of most cases of bleeding including, haemoptysis, bleeding per vaginum, menorrhagia, haematuria, bleeding haemorrhoids, bleeding wounds and espistaxis. It is the leaves that is being used in most cases. [3] [4] 

Infectious conditions

The juice expressed from the leaf after heating it is the remedy for sores and pimples of the Tok Sisin tribe in Papua New Guinea. The Fijian make use of this juice to treat earache, sore eyes and eczema. The roots cures toothache and laryngitis while the outer rind of the flower stalk is used in the treatment of syphilis. [5] [6] 

Abortifacient

In the south Pacific islands this plant is reputed to be an abortifacient. The leaves and the stem had been used by tribes of Fiji Islands, New Guinea, New Caledonia, Tonga and Vanuatu to procure abortion in various ways. [5] [6] [7] [8] 

Other Uses

In New Guinea, C. fruticosa is considered a stimulant which stimulate fierceness in young warriors. Decoction of the roots is given to lactating mothers to treat infection of the mammary glands. Juice expressed from heated leaves is given to those with colds and cough, and whooping cough. The young lef is believed to have the ability to relieve chest pains and the new shoot treats fillariasis. [3] [4] [6]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Antiproliferative activity 

Thymidine was isolated in the aqueous extract of C. terminalis (Syn. Cordyline fruticosa). This compound was found to inhibit EL4 cell replication and decrease cell viability after 12-24 hours of exposure to it. The treated cell culture showed a significant increase in S phase cells and a corresponding decrease in G1 phase cells. [9]

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

The traditional use of the plant to procure abortion automatically contraindicates its use during pregnancy. However, there do not seem to be any prohibition in its use during lactation. [5] [6] [7] [8]

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

  1. Sillitoe P., Roots of the Earth: Crops in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea, Manchester University Press, Manchester 1983, pg. 125 - 128.
  2. Seidmann J. World Spice Plants, Springer, Berlin 2005; pg. 116.
  3. Buttner R., Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops, Springer, Berlin. 2001; pg. 2005 – 2006.
  4. Dalimartha S. Atlas Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia, Volume 4, Puspa Swara, Jakarta. 2007; pg. 5.
  5. Nombo P, Leach J. Reite Plants: An Ethnobotanical Study in Tok Pisin and English, ANU E Press.  2010; pg. 68.
  6. Cambie RC, Ash J. Fijian Medicinal Plants, CSIRO Australia. 1994.
  7. Cambie RC, Brewis AA. Anti-fertility Plants of the Pacific, CSIRO Australia. 1997; pg. 27.
  8. Bloomfield SF. Illness and Cure in Tonga: Traditional and Modern Medical Practice, Vava’u Press Limited, Nuku’alofa. 2002; pg. 144.
  9. Ooi SO, Sim KY, Chung MC, Kon OL. Selective antiproliferative effects of thymidine. Experientia. 1993 Jul 5;49(6-7):576-81.
  10. Yokosuka A, Suzuki T, Mimaki Y. New cholestane glycosides from the leaves of Cordyline terminalis. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2012;60(2):275-9.