Articles

Premna serratifolia Linn.

Synonyms

Cornutia corymbosa Burm.f., Gumira abbreviate (Miq.) Kuntze, Gumira attenuata (R.Br.) Kuntze, Gumira laevigata (Miq.) Kuntze, Gumira opulifolia (Miq.) Kuntze, Gumira truncata (Turcz.) Kuntze, Premna abbreviata Miq., Premna angustior (C.B. Clarke) Ridl., Premna attenuata R. Br., Premna benthamiana Domin, Premna corymbosa var. obtusifolia (R. Br.) H.R. Fletcher; Premna corymbosa var. sambucina (Wall. ex. Schauer) Moldenke, Premna gaudichaudii Schauer, Premna glabra A. Gray ex Maxim., Premna glycycocca F. Muell., Premna guillauminii var. serrata Moldenke, Premna hircina Wall., Premna integrifolia var. angustior C.B. Clarke, Premna integrifolia var. minor Ridl., Premna integrifolia var. obtusifolia (R. Br.) C. P’ei, Premna laevigata Miq., Premna littoralis King & Gamble, Premna media R. Br., Premna obtusifolia R. Br., Premna obtusifolia var. gaudichaudii (Schauer) Moldenke, Premna obtusifolia var. velutina Benth., Premna opulifolia Miq., Premna ovata R. Br., Premna sambucina Wall. ex. Schauer, Premna serratifolia var. minor (Ridl.) A. Rajendran & P. Daniel, Premna spinosa Roxb., Premna subcordata Turcz., Premna tahitensis var. rapensis F. Br., Premna tahitensis var. rimatarensis F. Br., Premna truncata Turcz. [2]

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Buas-buas, Pokok Buru Hantu, Bebuat
Indonesia Babon (Bali); Singkil Alas, Ki Seungit (Java); Ki Pahang, Ki Seungit (Sunda)
Thailand Chah Leud
Philippines Alagau Dagat
Myanmar Taung-tangyi
India Bhutbhairavi, Ganiari (Bengali); Arni, Narvel (Bombay); Agetha, Arni, Ustabunda (Hindi); Munna (Malayalam); Agnibijaka, Agnimantha, Ananta, Araniketu, Havirmantha, Jayanti, Jyotishka, Mathana, Nedyi, Pittamatam Tanutvaka, Tejomantha, Vaijayantika, Vanhimantha, Vanhimula (Sanskrit); Munnai, Pasumunnai (Tamil); Gabbunelli, Karnika, Nagura, Tukkadu (Telagu); Arani (Urdu). [1] [6]

General Information

Description

Premna serratifolia is a member of the Lamiaceae family. The plant is a shrub or small tree that reaches up to 3m high. The leaves are simple, oppositely placed with leaf blade that is ovate to oblong and measures up to 20cm long. The flowers are small, numerous in a widely branching panicles. They have white, sympetalous corolla that is four-lobed and 2-3mm long. The fruits are globose drupe 3-9mm in diametre. They are green turning black when ripen. [7]

Plant Part Used

Roots, Leaves

Chemical Constituents

Premnine; ganiarin; ganikarine; [1] beta-sitosterol; polyisopremoid; spermine alkaloids; aphelandrine; luteolin; botulin, premnazole [8]

Traditional Uses

Traditionally the roots are considered a laxative and a stomachic while the leaves are also stomachic and an antiflatulent. [1] 

Gastrointestinal diseases

The root of P. serratifolia forms part of an Ayurvedic compound medicine called “Dashamula”, a decoction used as a stomachic, laxative, cordial and tonic. The entire plant is prescribed for constipation, internal obstruction and misperistalsis and piles. The roots stimulates appetite in cases of indigestion and dyspepsia. A decoction of the leaves helps relieve flatulence and colic. [1] [3] [4] [8]

Inflammatory diseases

A decoction of the whole plant is used to treat rheumatism, and abscess. Roots given internally helps treat virulent skin diseases, consumption and swellings. For glandular enlargement and erysipelas, the Indians applied a paste made of bamboo leaves and leaves of P. serratifolia. The root bark mixed with clarified butter is taken orally for urticaria and other allergic conditions of the skin. The alkaline ashes is used to treat cutaneous diseases by topical application. In Tonga, the infusion of the leaves is rubbed onto the skin to treat skin inflammation. [1] [4] [7] [8]

Other uses

The plant is used to treat neuralgia, urinary diseases including renal calculi. “Dashamula” is also prescribed in cases of obstinate fever. [1] [4] [7] [8]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Longevity promoting activity

Two major component of P. serratifolia are iridoids, 4-hydroxy-E-globularinin (4-HEG) and 10-O-trans-p-coumaroylcatalpol (OCC). These compounds showed longevity-promoting activity whereby it was found to enhance mean life-span of worm (Caenorhabditis elegans) by over 18.8% under normal culture conditions and also under oxidative stress situations. 4-HEG has the ability to upregulate stress-inducible gener hsp-16.2 and sod-3 while OCC was found to also ameliorate a-syn aggregation, reduce oxidative stress and promove longevity via activation of longevity promoting transcription factor DAF-16. [9] [10] 

Anti-inflammatory activity

The methanolic extract of the roots of P. integrifolia (syn. of P. serratifolia) was tested for its anti-inflammatory activity against animal models, and it exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. This activity is probably mediated through its proven antihistaminic, antikinin, COX-inhibitory and antioxidant activities. [11] 

Antidiabetic activity

In a screening for hypoglycaemic activity, P. serratifolia was amongst those that exhibit significant hypoglycaemic activity. [12]

Toxicities

No documentation

Teratogenic effects

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

  1. Chopra RN, Chopra IC. Indigenous Drugs of India, Academic Publishers, Kolkata, 2006 pg. 389 – 390
  2. The Plant List. Available at http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-165146 Accessed on 23rd April 2014
  3. Ainslie W., Materia Indica Volume 2, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, London 1826 pg. 210 – 211
  4. Khare CP. Indian Herbal Remedies: Rational Western Therapy, Ayurvedic, and Other Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2004 pg. 380 – 381
  5. Redwood T. A Supplement to the Pharmacopoiea Longman & Co., London 1857 pg. 439
  6. Priyadi H, Takao G, Rahmawati I, Supritanto B, Ikbal Nursal W, Rahman I. Five Hundred Plant Species in Gunong Halimun Salak National Park, West Java, CIFOR Bogor Barat, 2010, pg. 104
  7. Whistler WA. Tongan Herbal Medicine, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1992 pg. 107
  8. Khare CP. Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2007, pg 516
  9. Shukla V, Yadav D, Phulara SC, Gupta MM, Saikia SK, Pandey R. Longevity-promoting effects of 4-hydroxy-E-globularinin in Caenorhabditis elegans. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012 Nov 15;53(10):1848-56.
  10. Shukla V, Phulara SC, Yadav D, Tiwari S, Kaur S, Gupta MM, Nazir A, Pandey R. Iridoid compound 10-O-trans-p-Coumaroylcatalpol extends longevity and reduces alpha synuclein aggregation in Caenorhabditis elegans. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2012 Dec;11(8):984-92.
  11. Gokani RH, Lahiri SK, Santani DD, Shah MB. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Premna integrifolia root. J Complement Integr Med. 2011 Jan;8. doi: 10.2202/1553-3840.1216.
  12. Kar A, Choudhary BK, Bandyopadhyay NG. Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinalin alloxan diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Jan;84(1):105-8.