Curcuma mangga Valeton & Zijp

Synonyms

No documentation

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Temu mangga, Temu pauh
English Mango ginger
China Jiang huang
Indonesia Temu mangga, Temu pauh, Temu lalab (Java); Koneng joho, Koneng pare (Sunda Islands)
Thailand Khamin-khao
Japan Temu mangga [1][2]

General Information

Description

Curcuma mangga is a member of the Zingiberaceae family. The rhizome is pale dull yellowish on the outside and pale lemon or sulphur yellow on the inside. The young parts are white in colour with a distinct mango aroma. Primary tuber is ovoid, 6 x 4 cm. Branching in all directions are close and cylindric in shape about 1.5 cm thick. The leaves are long, green in colour and sometimes with a purple splash in the centre. The inflorescence appears outside of the leaves. The terminal bracts are violet red, median bracts green while the lower bracts are white. [13]

Plant Part Used

Rhizome [6]

Chemical Constituents

1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one; β-pinene; β-sitosterol; p-hydroxycinnamic acid;  (E)-labda-8(17),12-dien-15,16-dial; (E)-15,16-bisnor-labda-8(17),11-dien-13-on; bis-demethoxycurcumin; calcaratarin A; curcumanggoside; curcumin; demethoxycurcumin; labda-8(17),12-diene-15,16-dial; myrcene; scopoletin; zerumin A; zerumin B. [3] [4] [5]

Traditional Uses

The rhizome of C. mangga is believed to be useful for stomachache, backache, wounds, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma and sprains. It is carminative, stomachic, appetite stimulant, antipyretic, antidote for poisoning, diuretic and antiobesity. [6]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antiallergic activity

The aqueous extract of the rhizome of C. mangga exhibited anti-allergic activity (IC50 = 36.1 µg/ml) against antigen-induced beta-hexosaminidase release as a marker of degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells. [7]

Anti-inflammatory activity

A preliminary study showed that the ethanol extracts of C. mangga rhizome and its fractions (i.e. chloroform and hexane) possessed anti-inflammatory activity when tested against nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release using RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. A bioassay-guided fractionation done subsequently isolated demethoxycurcumin (1) from the chloroform fraction and 15,16-bisnorlabda-8(17),11-dien-13-one (2) and (E)-15,15-diethoxylabda-8(17),12-dien-16-al (3) from the n-hexane fraction. Compound 3 exhibited the highest activity against NO release with an IC50 value of 9.4 µM, followed by compound 1 (IC50 = 12.1 µM), and 2 (IC50 = 30.3 µM) meanwhile compound 1 possessed the highest PGE2 release activity (IC50 = 4.5 µM), followed by 3 (IC50 = 35.3 µM) and compound 2 (IC50 = 42.5 µM). It was found that compounds 1 and 3 downregulated the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a dose dependent manner, where compound 2 has an effect only on iNOS mRNA. [9]

Ethanol extract of C. manga rhizome (CME) and its fractions (i.e. aqueous, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and hexane) (150 mg/kg) administered orally to rats for duration of four hours showed significant reduction in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema following the order of inhibition activity by the fractions: chloroform fraction > hexane fraction > ethyl acetate fraction > CME > aqueous fraction.    In addition, CME and chloroform fraction (0.5 mg/ear) administered topically to croton oil-induced mouse ear edema showed highest inhibition at 53.97 and 50.29 %, respectively than other fractions. [8]

Immunomodulatory activity

C. mangga is amongst the 20 selected medicinal plants studied for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMSs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. The methanol extract of C. manggashowed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst on PMNs with IC50 value of 0.9 µg/m. [10]

Antimicrobial activity

The essential oil extracted from the rhizome of C. mangga showed promising antimicrobial activity by inhibiting the growth of all tested microorganisms compared to C. aeruginosa and Zinggiber cassumunar tested using disc diffusion method indicated by zone of inhibition (ZOI), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and compared with control tetracycline (Tet) or nystatin (Nys). The results showed that C. manga has antibacterial and antifungal towards the growth of Bacillus cereus (ZOI: 13.5±0.7 mm, MIC: 11.1 µL/mL, MBC: 11.1 µL/mL; Tet: 22.5±0.7 mm, 0.002 mg/mL, 0.12 mg/mL, respectively),   Staphylococcus aureus (ZOI: 10.0±0.0 mm, MIC: 1.2 µL/mL, MBC: 1.2 µL/mL; Tet: 17.0±0.0 mm, 0.010 mg/mL, 0.12 mg/mL, respectively), Escherichia coli (ZOI: 7.0±0.7 mm; Tet: 13.3±0.4 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ZOI: 9.0±0.0 mm; Tet: 23.0±0.0 mm), Candida albicans (ZOI: 10.3±0.4 mm, MIC: 3.7 µL/mL, MBC: 3.7 µL/mL ; Nys: 10.3±0.4 mm, 0.120 mg/mL, 0.37 mg/mL, respectively), and Cyptococcus neoformans (ZOI: 14.8±0.4 mm, MIC: 0.1 µL/mL, MBC: 0.1 µL/mL ; Tet: 18.00±0.0 mm, 0.370 mg/mL, 0.37 mg/mL, respectively) at varying degrees of inhibition. [11]

Antioxidant activity

Methanol and water extracts of C. mangga leaves (CMM and CMW) exhibited significant antioxidant activities at 100 μg/mL as evidenced by its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation (CMM: 78 %; CMW: 63 %), cycloxygenase enzymes-1 (COX-1) (CMM: 55 %; CMW: 33 %) and COX-2 (CMM: 65 %; CMW: 55 %). [12] 

Anticancer activity

It was found that the methanol and a water extract of the leaves of C. mangga was able to inhibit the growth of human tumour cell lines by 0-46%[12]

Toxicities

No documentation

Teratogenic effects

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation


Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

  1. Hanelt P. Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops, Springer, Berlin, 2001, pg. 2382
  2. Kays SJ. Cultivated Vegetables of the World: A Multilingual Onomasticon, Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen 2011 pg. 61
  3. Abas F, Lajis NH, Shaari K, Israf DA, Stanslas J, Yusuf UK, Raof SM. A labdane diterpene glucoside from the rhizomes of Curcuma mangga. J Nat Prod. 2005 Jul;68(7):1090-3.
  4. Malek SN, Lee GS, Hong SL, Yaacob H, Wahab NA, Faizal Weber JF, Shah SA. Phytochemical and cytotoxic investigations of Curcuma mangga rhizomes. Molecules. 2011 May 31;16(6):4539-48.
  5. Wahab IR, Blagojević PD, Radulović NS, Boylan F. Volatiles of Curcuma mangga Val. & Zijp (Zingiberaceae) from Malaysia. Chem Biodivers. 2011 Nov;8(11):2005-14. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.201100135.
  6. Rukmana HR. Temu-temuan, Apotek Hidup di Pekarangan, Kanisius, Yogyakarta 2004 pg. 20
  7. Tewtrakul S, Subhadhirasakul S. Anti-allergic activity of some selected plants in the Zingiberaceae family. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Feb 12;109(3):535-8. Epub 2006 Aug 15.
  8. Ruangsang P, Tewtrakul S, Reanmongkol W. Evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Curcuma mangga Val and Zijp rhizomes. J Nat Med. 2010 Jan;64(1):36-41. Epub 2009 Oct 15.
  9. Kaewkroek K, Wattanapiromsakul C, Tewtrakul S. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of compounds from Curcuma mangga rhizomes using RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Nat Prod Commun. 2010 Oct;5(10):1547-50.
  10. Jantan I, Harun NH, Septama AW, Murad S, Mesaik MA. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants. J Nat Med. 2011 Apr;65(2):400-5. Epub 2010 Dec 25.
  11. Kamazeri TS, Samah OA, Taher M, Susanti D, Qaralleh H. Antimicrobial activity and essential oils of Curcuma aeruginosa, Curcuma mangga, and Zingiber cassumunar from Malaysia. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012 Mar;5(3):202-9.
  12. Liu Y, Nair MG. Curcuma longa and Curcuma mangga leaves exhibit functional food property. Food Chem. 2012 Nov 15;135(2):634-40. Epub 2012 May 8.
  13. Ridley HN. Flora of the Malay Peninsula Volume 4, L.Reeves & Co. Covent Garden 1924 pg. 254.