Anthocephalus chinensis (Lamk) A. Rich. ex Walp

Synonyms

Anthocephalus chinensis (Lam.) Hassk. [Illegitimate], Anthocephalus indicus A.Rich., Breonia citrifolia (Poir.) Ridsdale, Breonia coriacea Havil., Breonia mauritiana Havil., Breonia richardiana (Baill.) Havil., Cephalidium citrifolium (Poir.) A.Rich., Nauclea citrifolia Poir., Sarcocephalus richardianus Baill., Sarcocephalus richardii Drake [4]

Vernacular Names

 
Malaysia Kelempayan (Peninsular); laran (Peninsular, Sabah); selimpoh (Sarawak) [5]; Kelapayan, kelempai, kelepayan, kelumpang, kelumpung, kempoyan, kepayang kayu, lempayang, lempoyan [6]
English Kadam, cadamba, common 1 bur-flower tree [5][7]
China Huang liang mu [7]
India Apaathyada mara, arisina thaega, attuhekku, bale, banphar, beegada, dhaaruja kaare, dieng  soalhngpaathi, ethakkaada, kada pode, kadvala, kaduve [6]
Indonesia Jabon (Java); laran (Kalimantan); emajang (Sumatra) [5]
Thailand Krathum, krathum bok, takoo [5]
Laos Koo-somz, sako [5]
Myanmar Mau-Iettan-she, maukadon, yemau [5]
Brunei Bangkal, kaatoan bangkal [5]
Philippines Kaatoan bangkal (General) [5]
Cambodia Thkoow [5]
Vietnam C[aa]y g[as]o, c[af] tom, g[as]o tr[aws]ng [5]
Nepal Kadam [6]
Papua New Guinea Labula [5]
France Kadam [5].

 

General Information

Description

Breonia chinensisgrows in the sub-Himalayan tract at latitudes from 9°S to 27°N. The plant is found from Nepal eastward to Bangladesh, India (Assam Province and Chotanagapur district at Bihar Province), Myanmar, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea [1]. This plant occurs mainly in secondary vegetation and along rivers on fertile, often periodically flooded locations up to 1000 m altitude [5]. It is a fast growing species with spreading branches. In the dry season, the tree sheds its leaves. The tree flowers in May through July [1].

A. chinensis comes from the family of Rubiaceae. It is a medium-sized to large tree that can reach up to 45 m tall. The bole is straight and cylindrical, branchless for more than 25 m, measures up to 100(-160) cm in diametre but generally less, sometimes with small buttresses up to 2 m high and extending up to 60 cm from the trunk. The leaves are measure 13-32 cm x 7-15 cm, with acute to acuminate apex and distinctly petiolate with a petiole 2.5-6 cm long. The flower heads are 3-5 cm wide where the upper part of the ovary is distinctly 4-loculed with 4 hollow cartilagineous structures. [5]

Plant Part Used

Fruits, leaves, bark.

Chemical Constituents

B. chinensis has been reported to contain indole alkaloids (e.g. cadambine) from leaves part and other indole alkaloids (e.g. 3α-dihydrocadambine, isodihydrocadambine, cadamine and isocadamine) from various parts [1]. Methanol extract of  B. chinensis bark extract has been reported to contain  two phenolic  apioglucosides (e.g. kelampayoside A and kelampayoside B), a secoiridoid glucoside (e.g. 3'-O-caffeoylsweroside), iridoids glucosides (e.g. loganin, 8-epikingside, loganic acid, and sweroside), indole alkaloid glucosides (e.g. cadambine, strictosidine lactam, desoxycorlifoline, and 5α-carboxystrictosidine),and non-glycosidic indole alkaloids (vallesiachotamine and isovallesiachotamine) [2].

Traditional Uses

The bitter and pungent bark is used in Ayurvedic medicine for uterine complaints, blood diseases, leprosy, and dysentery . A decoction of  the leaves is recommended in cases of stomatitis [1].

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antimalarial activity  

Cadambine, a major indole  alkaloid constituent isolated from the methanol extract of the of A. chinensis  bark (100 µM) showed moderate growth-inhibitory activity against the cultured malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum (a chloroquine-resistant K1 strain) in human erythrocytes with IC50 6.77 µM and IC90 9.85 µM. [2]

Toxicities

Genotoxicities and Mutagenicity Studies  

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions:

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents  

No information

Geriatrics  

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

  1. Handa SS, Borris RP, Cordell GA. NMR spectral analysis of cadambine from Anthocephalus chinensis. Journal of Natural Products.1984; 46 (3):325-330.
  2.  Kitagawa I, Wei H, Nagao S, Mahmud T, Hori K, Kobayashi M, Uji T, Shibuya H. Indonesian Medicinal Plants. XIV. Characterization of 3'-O-caffeoylsweroside, a new secoiridoid glucoside, and kelampayosides A and B, two new phenolic apioglucosides, from the bark of Anthocephalus chinensis (Rubiaceae). Chem. Pharm. Bull.1996; 44(6):1162-1167.
  3. Anthocephalus chinensis (Lam.) Rich. ex Walp. In: Part II: Species descriptions. In Tropical Tree Seed Manual. 2003, ed. Vozzo JA. United States Department of Agriculture
  4. The Plant List. Breonia chinensis (Lam.) Capuron [Internet]. Ver1.1, 2013. [cited 2014 Sept 10]. Available from http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-24358
  5. Sosef MSM. Anthocephalus chinensis (Lamk) A. Rich. ex Walp. In: Soerianegara I, Lemmens RHMJ, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1): Timber trees; Major commercial timbers. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers, 1993; p. 107-108.
  6. Umberto Q. CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology (5 Volume Set). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2012. p. 2622.
  7. Philippine Medicinal Plants. Kaatoan-bangkal. Anthocephalus chinensis (Lamk) A. Rich. ex Walp. [homepage on the Internet] c2014. [updated 2012 August; cited 2015 Apr 28] Available from: http://www.stuartxchange.org/Kaatoan-bangkal.html