Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thomson

 

MALAYSIAN HERBAL MONOGRAPH

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Kenanga flower

Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thomson

Annonaceae

 

 

fig1 a                                fig1 b                             
(a) (b)
fig1 c
(c)
Figure 1 :C. odorata. (a) Whole plant; (b) leaves; (c) flower. (Photos courtesy of Hawa ZE Jaafar, UPM, 2013)

   

DEFINITION

Kenanga flower consists of the dried flower of Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thomson (Annonaceae).

SYNONYM

Canangium mitrastigmum (F. Muell.) Domin, Cananga odorata var. odorata, Cananga odoratum (Lam.) Baill. ex King, Canangium scortechinii King, Canangium mitrastigma (F.Muell.) Domin, Canangium odoratum var. velutinum Koord. & Valeton, Fitzgeraldia mitrastigma F. Muell, Unona leptopetala Dunal, Unona odorata (Lam.) Dunal, Uvaria hortensis Noronha, Uvaria odorata Lam [1, 2].

VERNACULAR NAMES

Ylang-ylang, cananga, perfume tree (English); kenanga, chenanga, kenanga utan (Malay) [3]; guo luo shi, xiang shui shi, jia na kai, yi lan xiang (Chinese); apurvachampaka, chettu sampangi, karumugai (Tamil) [1]. 

CHARACTER

Colour            : Yellow brownish

Odour            : Gentle, rich-scented and fragrant, floral

Taste             : Slightly numbing 

IDENTIFICATION

Plant Morphology

C. odorata is a tree with height of 2–4 m, usually quite straggly, often with long, leafy twigs dangling 3–6 m; branches are pendulous or slightly erect with drooping, leafy twigs. Stem is a single main trunk that is usually bent to some degree; bark is smooth and grayish white to silvery. Leaves are dark green, up to 20 cm in length, alternate, simple, entire, elliptic-oblong, slightly pubescent, and with a prominent midrib and drip tip. Flowers are very fragrant, greenish yellow at first, then turning a deep yellow/yellow brown when mature, axillary, umbellate hanging clusters of 4–12 flowers; petals six narrow small, greenish yellow and rarely pink in colour, 5 cm long. Fruits greenish black in color, 1.5–2.5 cm in length, oblong and indehiscent with 3-13 pale brown seeds embedded in a yellow and oily pulp. Seed is flattened, ellipsoid, 9 mm × 6 mm, with thickness of 2.5 mm, pale brown in colour, surface pitted, hard and with a rudimentary aril. [3, 4, 5]

Microscopy

Powdered material consists of fragments of spiral vessels; multicellular trichome; cystolith cell and epidermis cells.  

 

 can a can b
 (a)  (b)
can c  can d
(c)  (d)
can e
(e)
Figure 2 : Microscopic characters of C. odorata flower powder. (a-b) Fragments of spiral vessels (magnification 60x); (c) multicellular trichome (magnification 60x); (d) cystolith cell (magnification 40x); (e) epidermis cells (magnification 80x). [Scale bars: a, b, c, d, f = 20 µm; e = 50 µm]

 

Colour Tests 

Observed colour changes on treatment with various reagents:

 

H2SO4 (conc.) : Yellow             
HCl (conc.) : Yellow
KOH (5%)          : Yellow
NH4OH (25%)   : Yellow

Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

Test solution :

Weigh about 1.0 g of C. odorata dried flower powder in a round flask and add 10 mL of ethanol. Reflux at 80oC until boil (about 2 min). Turn off the heater but continue reflux for the next 30 min. Filter the solution and use the filtrate as test solution.

Standard solution : Dissolve caffeic acid [CAS no: 331-39-5] in ethanol to produce a standard concentration 1.0 mg/mL solution
Stationary phase : HPTLC Glass silica gel 60 F254, 10 x 10 cm.
Mobile phase : Toluene : ethyl acetate : formic acid : (5 : 4 : 1) (v/v/v)
Application :

(a) Caffeic acid standard solution (S); 1µL, as a band.

(b) Ethanol extract of C. odorata dried flower powder (L); 1 µL, as a band
Development distance : 8 cm
Drying : Air drying
Detection :

(a) UV 254 nm before derivatization.

(b) UV 366 nm before derivatization.

(c) UV 366 nm after derivatization with 5% ethanolic sulphuric acid , heat at 105oC for 5 min.

 

fig3
Figure 3 : TLC profiles of caffeic acid (S), ethanol extract of C. odorata dried flower powder (L) observed under (a) UV at 254 nm before derivatization, (b) UV at 366 nm before derivatization and (c) UV at 366 nm after derivatization with 5% ethanolic sulphuric acid.

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

Test solution :

Weigh about 1.0 g of C. odorata dried flower powder in a round flask and add 10 mL of ethanol. Reflux at 80oC until boil (about 2 min). Turn off the heater but continue reflux for the next 30 min. Filter through a 0.45 µm syringe filter and inject the filtrate into the HPLC column.

Standard solution :

Dissolve caffeic  acid [CAS no:331-39-5] in 20 mL of ethanol to produce 1.0 mg/mL solution. 

Chromatographic system  :

Detector: UV 320 nm

Column: C18 column (5.0 µm, 4.6 mm I.D x 250 mm)

(Zorbax Eclipse unless necessary)   

Column oven temperature: 35°C

Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min

Injection volume: 1 µL

Mobile phase (Isocratic mode) :

Run Time

(min)

A -

0.03 M phosphoric acid in water (%)

B -

Methanol (%)

0 60 40
10 0 100
15 0 100
20 60 40
25 60 40
System suitability requirements :

Perform at least five replicate injections of caffeic acid (1.0 mg/mL) The requirements of the system suitability parameters are as follow:

  1. Symmetry factor (As) is not more than 1.5.
  2. Percentage of relative standard deviation (RSD) of the retention time (tr) for caffeic acid standard is not more than 2.0%.
Acceptance criteria :
  1. Retention time (tr) of caffeic acid standard in the test solution is similar to the tr of the standard solution.
  2. The ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of caffeic acid standard in the test solution is similar to the UV spectrum of the standard solution (optional supportive data).

  

fig4 a
(a)

  

fig4 b
(b)
Figure 4: HPLC chromatogram of caffeic acid standard solution (1.0 mg/mL) (a) full and (b) zoom at tr = 5.309 min.




 fig5 a
 (a)

 

fig5 b
 (b)
 Figure 5: HPLC chromatogram of ethanol extract of C. odorata dried flower powder (a) full and (b) zoom at tr = 5.267 min showing peak corresponding to caffeic acid. 

 

 fig6
 Figure 6 :UV spectrum of caffeic acid standard solution (1.0 mg/mL) and ethanol extract of C. odorata dried flower powder.

PURITY TESTS

 

Foreign Matter

Not more than 2% 

 

  Ash Contents   
Total ash : Not more than 6%  
Acid-insoluble ash : Not more than 1%

 

Loss on Drying

Not more than 9% 

 

   Extractive Values   
Water-soluble extracts
Hot Method          : Not less than 24%
Cold Method : Not less than 19%
Ethanol-soluble extracts
Hot Method : Not less than 24%
Cold Method : Not less than 20%

 

SAFETY TESTS

Heavy Metals  
Arsenic                         : Not more than 5.0 mg/kg
Mercury : Not more than 0.5 mg/kg
Lead : Not more than 10.0 mg/kg
Cadmium : Not more than 0.3 mg/kg

 

   Microbial Limits
 Total aerobic microbial count  :    Not more than 10cfu/g                    
 Total yeast and mould count  :  Not more than 10cfu/g
 Bile-tolerant gram negative bacteria  :  Not more than 10cfu/g

 

   Specific Pathogens
 Salmonella spp.               : Absent in 25 g                    
 Escherichia coli  : Absent in 1 g
 Staphylococcus aureus  : Absent in 1 g
Pseudomonas aeruginosa  : Absent in 1 g

 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

Methanol extract of C. odorata flowers has been reported to contain volatile compounds (p-cresyl methyl ether, methyl benzoate, linalool, benzyl acetate and geranyl acetate, β-caryophyllene, (+)-germacrene, and (E,E)-α-farnesene [7].

Chloroform and diethyl ether extract of C. odorata flowers has been reported to contain volatile compounds (anisole, linalool, geraniol, α-copaene, trans-caryophyllene, α-humulene, α-bergamotene, α-cadinol and benzyl benzoate) [8].

Ethyl acetate extract of C. odorata flowers has been reported to contain phenolics (caffeic acid) and volatile compounds (β-thujene, α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, α-terpinene, p-cresol methyl ether, trans-β-ocimene, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, terpinolene) [6]

MEDICINAL USES

Uses described in folk medicine, not supported by experimental or clinical data

Traditionally, a paste of the fresh flowers was used to treat asthma while dried flowers was used to treat malaria [9]. Flowers were also used as remedy for headaches, high blood pressure, coughs, dizziness, skin irritations, to treat gonorrhoea and back pain [10]. Meanwhile, C. odorata leaves were used in a treatment for diarrhoea in infants [11].

Biological and pharmacological activities supported by experimental data

Antimicrobial activity

Flower oil (0.01–0.75 mg/mL) of C. odorata inhibited the growth of Candida albicans with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 0.17mg/mL, Rhodotorula glutinis (MIC = 0.23 mg/mL), Schizosaccharomyces pombe (MIC = 0.54 mg/mL), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIC = 0.27 mg/mL) and Yarrowia lypolitica (MIC = 0.3 mg/mL) using disc diffusion assay [12].

Flower oil (0.015-4.0%) of C. odorata inhibited the growth of Propionibacterium acnes with inhibition zone of 8.8 mm, Propionibacterium acnes (9.4 mm), Propionibacterium acnes (9.5 mm), Propionibacterium acnes (9.4 mm) and Propionibacterium acnes (9.2 mm) compared to clindamycin (P. acnes = 31.0 mm, P. acnes = 31.2 mm, P. acnes = 30.4 mm, P. acnes = 29.4 mm, P. acnes = 29.1 mm) using agar dilution method [13].  

Antioxidant activity

Hexane extract of C. odorata flower showed antioxidant activity with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity with inhibition concentration at 50% of growth (IC50) of 170 µg/mL compared to α-tocopherol (IC50 = 12 µg/mL) using DPPH assay [14].

Hexane extract of C. odorata flower showed antioxidant activity with inhibited hexanal oxidation (IC50) of 185 µg/mL compared to α-tocopherol (IC50 = 14 µg/mL) using aldehyde/carboxylic acid assay [14].

Ovicidal activity

Essential oil of C. odorata (10%) showed a significant (p < 0.05) effect of minimum egg hatch of three mosquito species with value of 10.4% (Aedes aegypti), 0.8% (Anopheles dirus)and 1.1% (Culex quinquefasciatus). Meanwhile, the effective dose (ED50) values for egg hatch was 1.9% (Aedes aegypti), 1.4% (Anopheles dirus) and 0.5% (Culex quinquefasciatus) [15].

Insecticidal activity

Essential oil extracted from C. odorata flower at doses of 1%, 5%, and 10% (w/v) exhibited low insecticidal activity and knockout rate against all three types of adult mosquito species with lethal concentration (LC50) values of 9.77%(Aedes aegypti), 8.82% (Culex quinquefasciatus) and 4.99% (Anopheles dirus) respectively [16].

Clinical studies

A study was conducted to investigate the relaxing effect of C. odorata oil involving 40 healthy volunteers aged between 19 and 48 years. These subjects were divided into two groups; C. odorata oil was given to the experimental group and they allowed to apply and massage the oil to their skin for 5 min, while control group received placebo. C. odorata oil caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease of blood pressure (systolic blood pressure: 106.06 ± 2.14; diastolic blood pressure: 60.50 ± 1.48) and a significant increase of skin temperature (36.97 ± 0.15). At the behavioral level, subjects in the C. odorata oil group rated themselves calmer and more relaxed than subjects in the control group. [17]

SAFETY INFORMATION

Preclinical studies (Toxicology studies)

Information and data have not been established. 

Others (Adverse reaction, contraindication, side effect, warning, precaution)

Information and data have not been established. 

DOSAGE

Information and data have not been established.

STORAGE

Store below 30°C. Protect from light and moisture.

REFERENCES

  1. Plant names. [Internet] Cananga; 2014 [cited on 4th May 2013]. Available from: http://www.plantnames.unimelb.edu.au/Sorting/Cananga.html.
  2. The plant list. [Internet] Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson; 2013 [cited on 10th May 2013]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2695745.
  3. Abbott IA, Leakey RR, Elevitch CR. Traditional trees of Pacific Islands: their culture, environment, and use. Par: 2006.
  4. Flowers of India. [Internet] Ylang Ylang; [cited on 20th July 2014]. Available from: http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Ylang%20Ylang.html.
  5. Han S. Medicinal plants in the South Pacific. Volume 19. World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Publications. Western Pacific Series.1998; pg. 254.
  6. Jin J, Kim MJ, Dhandapani S, Tjhang JG, Yin JL, Wong L, Sarojam R, Chua NH, Jang IC. The floral transcriptome of ylang ylang (Cananga odorata var. fruticosa) uncovers biosynthetic pathways for volatile organic compounds and a multifunctional and novel sesquiterpene synthase. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2015;66(13):3959-3975.
  7. Benini C, Mahy G, Bizoux JP, Wathelet JP, du Jardin P, Brostaux Y, Fauconnier ML. Comparative chemical and molecular variability of Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thomson forma genuina (Ylang‐Ylang) in the western Indian ocean islands: implication for valorization. Chemistry & biodiversity. 2012;9(7):1389-1402.
  8. Megawati S, SWD. A combination of water-steam distillation and solvent extraction of Cananga odorata essential oil. IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN). 2012;2(10):7.
  9. Perry LM, Metzger J. Medicinal plants of east and southeast Asia: attributed properties and uses. MIT Press: 1980.
  10. Weiner MA. Secrets of Fijian medicine. 1984.
  11. Whistler WA. Tongan herbal medicine. University of Hawaii Press: 1992.
  12. Sacchetti G, Maietti S, Muzzoli M, Scaglianti M, Manfredini S, Radice M, Bruni R. Comparative evaluation of 11 essential oils of different origin as functional antioxidants, antiradicals and antimicrobials in foods. Food Chemistry. 2005;91(4):621-632.
  13. Luangnarumitchai S, Lamlertthon S, Tiyaboonchai W. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against five strains of Propionibacterium acnes. Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2007;34(1-4):60-64.
  14. Wei A, Shibamoto T. Antioxidant activities and volatile constituents of various essential oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2007;55(5):1737-1742.
  15. Phasomkusolsil S, Soonwera M. The effects of herbal essential oils on the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles dirus (peyton and harrison) and Culex quinquefasciatus (say). Tropical Biomedicine. 2012;29(1):138-150.
  16. Phasomkusolsil S, Soonwera M. Efficacy of herbal essential oils as insecticide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Culex quinquefasciatus (say) and Anopheles dirus (peyton and harrison). Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 2011;42(5):1083.
  17. Hongratanaworakit T, Buchbauer G. Relaxing effect of ylang ylang oil on humans after transdermal absorption. Phytotherapy Research.2006;20(9):758-763.