HPLC And Chemical Studies Of Bacopa Monniera Linn (Scrophulariaceae)

Author

Reza Korehei

Date

2003

Keyword

Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) , Scrophulariaceae, Ayurvedic, chemical studies, Bacosides

Abstract

Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) has been used by Ayurvedic medical practitioners in India for almost 3000 years. Pharmacologically, it is understood that Brahmi has an unusual combination of constituents that are beneficial in mental inefficiency and illnesses. Bacosides (saponins) brahmi's active principles responsible for improving memory related function, are attributed with the capability to enhance the efficiency of transmission of nerve impulses, thereby strengthening memory and cognition. Various solvents extraction methods were used to extract brahmi's components and ethanol: water (50:50 v: v) was found to be the most effective solvent system for such process. Spray dry is more efficient method of drying than the freeze dry method for the brahmi extracts. HPLC analytical method could be used for the verification and comparison of the various Brahmi extracts and the originality of the extracted materials for pharmaceutical-medicinal applications. The results of all these analytical HPLC data and the identified components for all the Brahmi extracts have led to the finding of a typical HPLC chromatogram where the various extracted groups such as phytosterols, bacosides, bacogenins, fatty acids and benzene derivatives can be designated. This finding could be used for the verification of any Brahmi extracted source under the same HPLC conditions. The preparative HPLC and flash column chromatography methods have been successful in the separation and purification of brahmi's components. The HPLC analytical data were combined for structural identification by means of GC-MS, NMR, IR and UV. Fatty acids and their derivatives such as: ethyl hexadecanoate, tetradecanoic acid and ethyl cis, cis, cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoate have been isolated. In addition benzene type of compounds were also     identified    as     l-(4'-methoxyphenyl)ethanone     (para-methoxybenzene),     l-(3'-nitrophenyl)ethanone (meta-nitroacetophenon) and 1,1-diphenylmethanone. While the sapogenin, bacogenin A4 or ebelin lactone and saponin bacopasaponin A3 or 3-ß-[O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(l,3)-O-(α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(l,2)-0-[3-D-glucopyranosyl) oxy]jujubogenin and stigmasta, 3(3-Hydroxy-24-ethyl-5,22-cholesadiene were isolated. Other aromatic components were also isolated but their structures were not identified due to the low quantity of materials.