Chemical Constituents From Annona Muricata (Linn.) And Garcinia Mangostana (Linn.) And Their Biological Activities

Author

SHAARI BIN DAUD

Date

2005

Keyword

Annona muricata, Annonaceae, Garcinia mangostana, Guttiferae, chemical constituent, antimicrobial activities, larvicidal activity, cytotoxic activity

Abstract

Chemical studies were carried out on Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) and Garcinia mangostana L. (Guttiferae). The chemical investigations covered acetogenin, triterpenoids and xanthones. These compounds were isolated using common chro|natographic techniques and were identified by using spectroscopic technique such as Nyfe., MS, IR and UV. Biological activities for both plants were also evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against four pathogenic bacteria and four fungi, cytotoxic activity against CEM-SS and HL-60 cell lines and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Larvicidal activity data have never been reported before. Annona muricata L. (stem bark) have afforded one acetogenin, solamin and two triterpenoids, stigmasterol and sitosterol. Meanwhile studies on Garcinia mangostana L. (bark) have provided a new xanthone, mangosharin (2,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone) together with six other xanthones, a-mangostin, P-mangostin, garcinone D, xanthone 1, l,6-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone and mangostanol and one triterpenoid, friedelin. Cytotoxic tests were performed using CEM-SS cell line and HL-60 cell line. The crude hexane extract of Annona muricata L. gave a significant activity with an IC50 value of 0.8 µg/ml against CEM-SS cell line while the crude ethyl acetate (EA) extract also gave a significant activity with an IC50 value of 0.5 µg/ml but against HL-60 cell line. The crude hexane extract of Garcinia mangostana L. is also considered to be active against the CEM-SS cell-line with an IC50 value of 17 µg/ml. Other than that, the pure compounds α-mangostin, mangostanol and garcinone D also gave significant activities with IC50 values of 5.5, 9.6 and 3.2 µg/ml against CEM-SS cell line, respectively. The antimicrobial activity test was also carried out using four pathogenic bacteria, namely, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aures, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis. However, most of the crude extracts gave only moderate or weak activity. The pure compound α-mangostin gave weak activity against Salmonella typhimurium and medium inhibition against Bacillus subtilis. The larvicidal tests were performed against the larvae of Aedes aegypti using the WHO (1981) standard procedures with slight modifications. The crude hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Annona muricata L. showed moderate toxicity towards the larvae by giving LC50 values of less than 100 µg/ml. The crude hexane and ethanol extracts of Garcinia mangostana L. gave weak activities against the larvae with LC50 values of more than 150 µg/ml while the crude ethyl acetate extract showed moderate activity with an LC50 value of 30.1 µg/ml. Larvacidal activity on the pure compound, α-mangostin gave a LC50 value of 19.4 µg/ml. No activity was recorded for the antifungal activity tests.