Nutrition Composition Of Red Pitaya (Hylocereus Sp.) And Hypocholesterolemic Effect On Lipid Profile In Induced Hypercholesterolemia Rats

Author

MOHD ADZIM KHALILI BIN ROHIN

Date

2006

Keyword

Hylocereus species, red pitaya, nutrition composition, hypocholesterolemic effect, lipid profile, total antioxidant, blood cholesterol

Abstract

Hylocereus species has generated a lot of interest as sources of natural red color for the food coloring, cosmetic industry and health potential to improving eyesight and preventing hypertension and combat anemia. This study was carried out to investigate the proximate compositions (ash, moisture, fat and protein), carbohydrate, crude fiber, flavonoids (kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, apigenin, luteolin and rutin), minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, ferum, zinc and cuprum), water soluble vitamins (truamin (Bl), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pyridoxine (B6), cyanocobalamin (B12) and ascorbic acid (C)), and to evaluate the hypocholesterolemic effect of red pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) on lipid profile, total antioxidant and malondialdehyde status in induced hypercholesterolemia rats. Thirty-sixth Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups. Group N and HC was the negative and positive control, group PF1, PF2 and PF3 were given red pitaya fruit supplements (dosage) (0.5, 0.83 and 1.17% / body weight of rats) and group Lv was given Lovastatin treatment (20 mg/kgBW). The control group N was fed with basal diet, while five other groups (HC, PF1, PF2, PF3 and Lv) were given basal diet added with 1% cholesterol and 0.1% cholic acid, 30 g daily. The study period was 11 weeks. About 10 ml blood was taken from the aorta, four times during the study, that was during baseline, first, third and final week of the treatmenL Results showed that the red pitaya proximate compositions were 87.3 ± 0.02 % moisture, 0.70± 0.03 g ash, 0.16 ± 0.02 g protein, 0.23 + 0.03 g fat, 10.10 ± 0.25 g crude fiber and 1.48 ± 0.15 g carbohydrate. As for flavonoids in red pitaya, results show myricetin (7.23 ± 0.86 ug) and quercetin (6.81 ± 0.76 ug) were the highest contents in this fruit followed by kaempferol (3.09 ±0.26 ug), apigenin (2.01 ± 0.18 ug), luteolin (1.06 ± 0.11 ug) and rutin (1.03 ± 0.09 ug). Results show that highest the mineral contents in red pitaya were potassium (56.96 ± 0.02 mg), sodium (50.15 ± 0.10 mg), magnesium (28.30 ± 0.97 mg), phosphorus (23.00 ± 0.04 mg), zinc (13.87± 0.68 mg), calcium (5.70 + 0.08 mg), iron (3.40 ± 0.25 mg) and copper (0.031± 0.04 mg). Red pitaya was also high in vitamin C (525.32 ± 3.09 mg), B3 (513.78 ± 6.53 ug), Ba (48.90 + 1.56 ug), B2 (40.75 ± 3.47 ug), B6 (20.57 ± 7.23 ug) and B12 (15.61 ± 1.89 ug), where the result was very different from the previous findings. For in-vivo study, results show that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in initial body weight and food intake among negative control and treatment groups. The group which received 1.17% red pitaya diet had a significantly lower (p<0.05) body weight (8.15%) and food intake (6.09%) as compared to other groups. For total blood cholesterol, there was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in both groups given red pitaya and lovastatin treatment. Total cholesterol (TQ level for group PF1 reduced (46.73%), group PF2 (56.71%), group PF3 (59.01%), and Lv (54.33%) as compared to the baseline level. The TC level in both negative (group N - 5.05%) and positive controls (group HC - 13.86%) were not significantly different in value (p<0.05). The mean triglycerides (TG) level for all groups had shown a significant reduction (p<0.05) of 2126% (group HQ, 34.03% (group PF2), 48.32% (group PF3), 46.19% (group Lv), 42.83% (group PF1) and 23.86% (group N) as compared to baseline leveL The mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level increased about 2.10% (group N), 19.24% (group PF1), 24.34% (group PF2), 29.34% (group Lv) and a very high increase in group PF3 (34.25%). The mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) decreased about 75.82% (group PF3), 74.36% (group PF2), 71.95% (group Lv) and 60.55% (group PF1), but group N (11.27%) and HC (20.99%) showed increased mean LDL value. For total antioxidant status (TAS), group Lv (22.93%) showed the highest TAS value after treatment followed by groups PF3 (18.46%), PF2 (11.99%), PF1 (12.45%) and N (0.49%). The mean of malondialdehyde level (MDA) in treatment groups shows a significantly low increase in value of 6.44% (group N), 7.47% (group PF3), 9.85% (group Lv), 11.09% (group PF1) and 10.40% (PF2). Group HC showed decrease in value for TAS (12.13%) and increase in value for MDA (28.97%) level due to high concentrations of LDL and TC in plasma.   As a conclusion, daily consumption of red pitaya more than 500 g could be recommended to reduce TC, LDL, TG and MDA levels, and to increase HDL and TAS levels. Therefore, consumption of red pitaya fruit may be able to help reduce the risk factors for cardiovascular disease.