Screening of Malaysian Plants Against Bungarus candidus (Malayan Krait) Snake Venom

Author

YEE LING-TAN, JAYA VEJAYAN, HALIJAH IBRAHIM & IEKHSAN OTHMAN

Proceeding

The 21st Annual Seminar of the Malaysian Natural Product Society.(Herbal Medicine:Natural Products S ciety), Palm Garden, Putrajaya Malaysia.

Date

22/11/2005

Keyword

Bungarus candidus, snake venom, plant extracts, Melaleuca cajuputi.

Abstract

It has been recognized since ancient times that plants can be used therapeutically against snake envenomation. In this study the ethnopharmocological claims of several of these plants to reduce the toxic effects of snake venom were investigated. A total of 15 plants, i.e. Ipomoea pes-caprae (Tapak Kuda),  Myristica fragrans (Buah Pala),  Oenanthe javanica (Selom),  Phyllanthus urinaria (Dukong Anak),  Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara),  Melaleuca cajuputi (Gelam), Musa paradisiacal (Pisang), Allium sativum (Bawang Putih), Barleria lupulina (Chinese Herb), Angdrographis panniculata (Hempedu Bumi),  Terminalia cattapa (Ketapang),  Mimosa pudica (Semalu) and three Curcuma sp. were screened for protective effects against poisoning by Bungarus candidus snake venom using mice. Neutralization of the lethal effects of this snake venom was investigated by incubating 2LD50 concentration of venom with the aqueous extracts of various plants at 37oC for 60 min. The mixture of venom-extract was then injected intraperitoneally into the mice and observation was carried out for 24 hrs.  Only one plant, Melaleuca cajeputi was found to show 100% ability in neutralizing the toxicity of Bungarus candidus venom. In addition, the result of the double immunodiffusion showed significant binding capabilities between Melaleuca cajuputi extract and venom preparations with the formation of a venom-antivenom precipitin line. Both of these results demonstrated the potential of this plant as anti-venom against Bungarus candidus venom.