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Lansium domesticum Correa

Lansium domesticum Correa

Family

Meliaceae

Synonyms

Aglaia dookoo Griffith, Aglaia domestica (Correa) Pellegrin, Aglaia aquea (Jack) Kosterm.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Langsat,duku, duku-Iangsat.
English Langsat
Indonesia Langsat, duku, kokosan.
Philippines Lansones (Tagalog), boboa (Bisaya), buahan (Manobo).
Thailand Langsat, duku, longkong.
Vietnam Bon-bon.

Geographical Distributions

Lansium domesticum originates in western Southeast Asia, from Peninsular Thailand in the west to Borneo in the east. It still occurs wild or naturalised in this area and is one of the major cultivated fruits. On a small scale, it is also cultivated in Vietnam, Burma, India, Sri Lanka, Hawaii, Australia, Surinam and Puerto Rico.

Description

This tree can reach up to 30 m tall and 75 cm in trunk diametre. However, in cultivation, it is usually 5-10 m tall. Its bole is up to 25 m long, irregularly fluted and with steep buttresses. The bark is mottled grey and orange, furrowed, containing milky and sticky resinous sap. The twigs are smooth to hairy.

The leaves are arranged alternately, odd-pinnate, 30-50 cm long and hairless to densely hairy while the petiole is up to 7 cm long. The leaflets are alternate, in 6-9, elliptical to oblong, measuring 9-21 cm x 5-10 cm. The leaflets are glossy, chartaceous-coriaceous, with asymmetric base, short acuminate apex, 10-14 pairs of lateral veins, 5-12 mm long petiolules and thickens at base.

The inflorescences are many flowered, solitary or in fascicles of 2-10 on the trunk or largest branches. The racemes 10-30 cm long are simple or branched at the base. The flowers are bisexual, sessile to pedicelled, solitary and small. The sepal is fleshy, cup-shaped, 5-lobed and greenish-yellow. The petals are fleshy, erect, ovate, measuring 2-3 mm x 4-5 mm and white to pale yellow. The staminal tube is nearly spherical, up to 2 mm high and anthers are in one whorl. The ovary is spherical, appressed pilose and 4-5-celled. The style is short, thick and with broad stigma.

The fruit is an ellipsoid or spherical berry, measuring up to 2-4(-7) cm x 1.5-5 cm, with yellowish hairs and persistent sepal with reflexed lobes. The fruit wall is thin (1-1.5 mm) or thick (up to 6 mm).

There are 1-3 seeds, enveloped by a closely adhering, thick, fleshy and translucent white aril. The cells, which are without developed seed, are also filled with aril tissue.

Ecology / Cultivation

L. domesticum is grown mainly in mixed stands with companion trees, which provide shade. The species is more demanding than the companion crops and only thrives in sheltered, humid environment up to 800 m elevation, but preferably near sea-level. In other words, it requires a warm, moist and almost stress-free tropical environment. Well-distributed rainfall (or access to ground water, or irrigation), shade and mulch all help to limit stress. The tree has a clear preference for better soils, in particular those with good drainage and water retention, e.g. riverbanks in Malaysia. It dislikes sandy coastal soils and alkaline soils. Medium-textured soils rich in organic matter and slightly acid are preferred.

Line Drawing / Photograph

Lansium_domesticum_Correa

References

 

  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.2: Edible fruits and nuts . 1992.

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