image
Conservation

Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
image
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
 
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)

 

Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More

 

News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

113th MOH-AMM Scientific Meeting 2019

From Tue, 27. August 2019 Until Thu, 29. August 2019

14 th World Congress on Pharmacology and Toxicology

From Wed, 11. September 2019 Until Thu, 12. September 2019

25th International Coneference on Advanced Clinical Research and Clinical Trials

From Mon, 16. September 2019 Until Tue, 17. September 2019

17th World Congress on Drug Formualtion & Drug Delivery

From Wed, 25. September 2019 Until Thu, 26. September 2019

19th World Congress on Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences

From Mon, 14. October 2019 Until Tue, 15. October 2019

Piper betle L.

Piper betle L.

Family

Piperaceae

Synonyms

Chavica betle (L.) Miquel, Piper pinguispicum C.DC. & Koord.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia

Sirih (Malay).

English

Betel pepper, betelvine.

Indonesia

Sirih (Indonesian), suruh (Javanese), seureuh (Sundanese).

Papua New Guinea

Daka.

Philippines

Ikmo (Tagalog), buyo (Bikol), mamon (Bisaya).

Cambodia

Mlu:.

Laos

Ph'u.

Thailand

Phlu (General).

Vietnam

Tr[aat]u, tr[aat]u kh[oo]ng.

French

Betel.

Geographical Distributions

Piper betle is native to central and eastern Malesia and was taken into cultivation more than 2500 years ago throughout Malesia and tropical Asia. It reached Madagascar and East Africa much later and was also introduced into the West Indies. Written Chinese sources from the period of the Tang dynasty (A.D. 618-907) described Southeast Asia as a region of betel users. Betel chewing was widespread in South India and South China when the first Europeans arrived in the 15th century.

Description

Piper betle is a dioecious, perennial, woody, smooth climber up to 5-20 m long. The stem is swollen at the nodes. Horizontal branches grow with adventitious roots to climb but the vertical branches are generative and without roots.

The leaves are arranged alternately, coriaceous and rather variable. The petiole is 1-2.5 cm long. The blade is ovate to ovate oblong, measuring 5-20 cm x 2-11 cm, cordate at base, rounded or oblique, with entire margin, acuminate at apex, with 2-3 pairs of curved veins from the base and one pair from the midrib which is 1-3 cm above the base. It is shiny bright green.

The inflorescence is cylindrical while the spike is pendulous. The peduncle is 1-6 cm long. The male spike is up to 12 cm long and crowded with small flowers with 2 stamens while the female spike is up to 5 cm long and crowded with 3-5 stigmas of female flowers.

The fruit is a fleshy drupe and measures up to 5 cm x 1.5 cm. The suborbicular seed is 3-5 mm in diametre.

Ecology / Cultivation

Piper betle thrives under per-humid forest conditions with high relative humidity and supply of soil moisture. It flourishes in areas with 2250-4750 mm annual rainfall and is cultivated at altitudes up to 900 m. It prefers shade and needs protection from wind. It prefers deep, well-drained, friable loamy and clayey soils, rich in organic matter and with a pH of about 7-7.5.

Line Drawing / Photograph

Piper_betle

Read More

  1) Safety

  2) Cultivation

References

1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 16: Stimulants.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More