Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine

From Mon, 24. February 2020 Until Tue, 25. February 2020

21st Interntaional Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems

From Wed, 11. March 2020 Until Thu, 12. March 2020

6th Annual Congress on Clinical & Hospital Pharmacy

From Mon, 23. March 2020 Until Tue, 24. March 2020

2nd International Conference on Bio-Pharmaceuticals

From Wed, 25. March 2020 Until Thu, 26. March 2020

Cardiovascular protection by ginsenosides and their nitric oxide releasing action.


Chen X




Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol


1. In an animal model in vivo, ginsenosides (GS), saponins from Panax ginseng, were shown to protect against myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion damage with concomitant increased 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and decreased lipid peroxidation. 2. In perfused rabbit lung in situ and isolated rabbit aortic rings, GS protected the pulmonary and aortic endothelium against electrolysis-induced free radical injury. Purified components of GS, Rb1 and especially Rg1, relaxed pulmonary vessels and this effect was eliminated by nitro-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase. 3. In cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells, GS enhanced the conversion of [14C]-L-arginine to [14C]-L-citrulline, indicating an increased release of NO. 4. As the neurotransmitter inducing penile erection, NO release was shown to be enhanced by GS in rabbit corpus cavernosum (CC) in vitro. Ginsenosides enhanced both acetylcholine-induced and transmural nerve stimulation-activated relaxation associated with increased tissue cGMP. The latter effect was eliminated by tetrodotoxin and was associated with decreased tissue cGMP. Ginsenoside-enhanced CC relaxation was attenuated by nitro-L-arginine and oxyhaemoglobin, and enhanced by superoxide dismutase. 5. It is postulated that cardiovascular protection by GS may be partly mediated by the release of NO, a potent antioxidant, and that the GS-enhanced release of NO from endothelial cells, especially from perivascular nitric oxidergic nerves in the CC, may partly account for the aphrodisiac effect of Panax ginseng used in traditional Chinese medicine.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More