Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

14th International Conference on Biopharma and Biotherapeutics

From Fri, 25. October 2019 Until Sat, 26. October 2019

World Conference on Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Clinical Research

From Wed, 27. November 2019 Until Thu, 28. November 2019

15th Annual Congress on Pharmacology and Toxicology

From Mon, 2. December 2019 Until Tue, 3. December 2019

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine

From Mon, 24. February 2020 Until Tue, 25. February 2020

21st Interntaional Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems

From Wed, 11. March 2020 Until Thu, 12. March 2020

In vitro virucidal activity of selected anthraquinones and anthraquinone derivatives.


Andersen DO, Weber ND, Wood SG




Antiviral Res


Anthraquinones and anthraquinone derivatives were characterized for their antiviral and virucidal activities against viruses representing several taxonomic groups. One of these compounds, hypericin, had activity against vesicular stomatitis virus, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, parainfluenza virus, and vaccinia virus (from 0.5 to 3.8 log10 reductions in infectivity) at concentrations of less than 1 microgram/ml as determined by a direct pre-infection incubation assay. Human rhinovirus was not sensitive to hypericin at concentrations up to 10 micrograms/ml. Addition of small amounts of Tween-80 to solutions containing hypericin enhanced, by up to 2.6 log10, hypericin's virucidal activity. Anthraquinones and anthraquinone derivatives with the hydroxyl and alkyl substitution pattern of emodin (i.e. emodin, emodin anthrone, emodin bianthrone and hypericin) were active against the enveloped viruses tested. The following general pattern of activity was found: hypericin greater than emodin bianthrone greater than emodin anthrone greater than emodin. Chrysophanic acid, aloe-emodin, and sennosides A and B did not possess activity against any of the viruses tested.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More