Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

14th International Conference on Biopharma and Biotherapeutics

From Fri, 25. October 2019 Until Sat, 26. October 2019

World Conference on Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Clinical Research

From Wed, 27. November 2019 Until Thu, 28. November 2019

15th Annual Congress on Pharmacology and Toxicology

From Mon, 2. December 2019 Until Tue, 3. December 2019

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine

From Mon, 24. February 2020 Until Tue, 25. February 2020

21st Interntaional Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems

From Wed, 11. March 2020 Until Thu, 12. March 2020

The anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum is mediated by cytokines released from activated macrophages and T lymphocytes.


Wang SY, Hsu ML, Hsu HC, Tzeng CH




Int J Cancer


The present study was to ascertain the immunomodulating and anti- tumor effects of Ganoderma (G.) lucidum. Polysaccharides (PS) from fresh fruiting bodies of G. lucidum (PS-G) were isolated and used to potentiate cytokine production by human monocytes-macrophages and T lymphocytes. Our results had shown that the levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha, and IL-6 in macrophage cultures treated with PS-G (100 micrograms/ml) were 5.1-, 9.8- and 29-fold higher, respectively, than those of untreated controls. In addition, the release of interferon (IFN)- gamma from T lymphocytes was also greatly promoted in the presence of PS-G (25-100 micrograms/ml). Furthermore, these cytokine-containing mononuclear cell-conditioned media (PSG-MNC-CM) were found to suppress the proliferation and clonogenicity of both the HL-60 and the U937 leukemic cell lines. DNA labeling and gel electrophoresis showed that treatment with PSG-MNC-CM markedly induced leukemic-cell apoptosis. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed that few (2.3 +/- 0.8%) apoptotic cells were seen in the control cultures, while PSG-MNC-CM treatment resulted in a significant increase in the apoptotic population both in the HL-60 (38.3 +/- 4.5%) and in the U937 (44.5 +/- 3.8%) cells. In addition, 40 to 45% of the treated leukemic cells were triggered to differentiate into mature monocytic cells expressing CD14 and CD68 surface antigens. However, PS-G alone had no such effects even at a higher dose of 400 micrograms/ml. Since untreated macrophages and T lymphocytes produced little or no cytokine, and normal MNC-CM did not suppress leukemic cell growth, it was suggestive that the anti-tumor activity of PSG-MNC-CM was derived from the elevated levels of cytokines. Antibody-neutralization studies further revealed that the anti-tumor cytokines in the PSG-MNC-CM were mainly of TNF- alpha and IFN- gamma, and these 2 cytokines acted synergistically on the inhibition of leukemic-cell growth.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More