Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

21st Interntaional Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems

From Wed, 11. March 2020 Until Thu, 12. March 2020

6th Annual Congress on Clinical & Hospital Pharmacy

From Mon, 23. March 2020 Until Tue, 24. March 2020

2nd International Conference on Bio-Pharmaceuticals

From Wed, 25. March 2020 Until Thu, 26. March 2020

Proteolytic enzymes and amylase induce cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.


Desser L, Rehberger A, Paukovits W




Cancer Biother


In vitro treatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) with proteolytic enzymes (bromelain, papain) and amylase leads to the production of large amounts of tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1 beta), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a time and dose dependent manner. Increased TNF-alpha and IL-6 production was already found after 4-6 hours of incubation, and plateau levels were reached after 12-16 hours. Plateau levels up to 1500 pg TNF-alpha/ml/10(6) PBMNC, 13000 pg IL-1 beta/ml/10(6) PBMNC, and 23000 pg IL-6/ml/10(6) PBMNC were observed. Control cultures contained below 35 pg/ml/10(6) PBMNC of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta or IL-6. In contrast to TNF-alpha which was undetectable after more than 24 hours, peak levels of IL-1 beta and IL-6 were still present at 24 hours. After incubation of the enzyme solution for some hours at 56 degrees C the cytokine inducing capacity disappeared. Neutralization experiments with inactivating antibodies, radioimmunoassay, and western blotting after electrophoretic separation showed that the TNF- like activity found in the lytic assay was due to TNF-alpha. Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), which had no effect alone, synergistically increased TNF-alpha production when applied together with the enzymes. A commercial mixture of these enzymes (Wobenzym), which was also investigated, showed a similar concentration and time dependence, as well as synergism with the interferons. A synergistic effect on TNF-alpha production was also found with the enzymes and phorbol ester (PMA).

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More