Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

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Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

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Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

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14th International Conference on Biopharma and Biotherapeutics

From Fri, 25. October 2019 Until Sat, 26. October 2019

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Bromelain activates murine macrophages and natural killer cells in vitro


Engwerda CR, Andrew D, Murphy M, Mynott TL




Cell Immunol


The innate immune response is critical for effective immunity against most pathogens. In this study, we show that bromelain, a mixture of cysteine proteases, can enhance IFN-gamma-mediated nitric oxide and TNFalpha production by macrophages. Bromelain's effect was independent of endotoxin receptor activation and was not caused by direct modulation of IFN-gamma receptors. Instead, bromelain either enhanced or acted synergistically with IFN-gamma receptor-mediated signals. These effects were seen in both RAW 264.7, a macrophage cell line, and primary macrophage populations. Bromelain also increased IL-2- and IL-12-mediated IFN-gamma production by NK cells. These results indicate a potential role for bromelain in the activation of inflammatory responses in situations where they may be deficient, such as may occur in immunocompromised individuals.

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Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

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Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

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