Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

14th International Conference on Biopharma and Biotherapeutics

From Fri, 25. October 2019 Until Sat, 26. October 2019

World Conference on Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Clinical Research

From Wed, 27. November 2019 Until Thu, 28. November 2019

15th Annual Congress on Pharmacology and Toxicology

From Mon, 2. December 2019 Until Tue, 3. December 2019

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine

From Mon, 24. February 2020 Until Tue, 25. February 2020

21st Interntaional Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems

From Wed, 11. March 2020 Until Thu, 12. March 2020

Panax quinquefolium saponins protects low density lipoproteins from oxidation.


Li J, Huang M, Teoh H, Man RY




Life Sci


Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Panax quinquefolium saponins (PQS) are extracted from the stems and leaves of the North American form of ginseng, Panax quinquefolium. Earlier studies have suggested that this extract improves the lipid profile of hyperlipidemic rats and has antioxidant properties in cultured rat cardiac myocytes. The aims of the present study were to investigate the potential of PQS in reducing LDL oxidation as well as limiting the ability of Ox-LDL to impair endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat aortic rings. LDL was isolated from the plasma of healthy human donors by sequential ultracentrifugation. Native LDL (0.2 or 0.3 mg/ml) was incubated with PQS (0.25-1 mg/ml) for 30 min at 20 degrees C. For comparison, vitamin C (50 microM) was added in place of PQS. Oxidative modification was initiated with 5 microM CuSO4 at 37 degrees C for 0-24 h. In our hands, PQS concentration-dependently reduced lipid peroxide levels as measured by the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formed. This range of PQS also retarded the alterations in relative electrophoretic mobility of Ox-LDL in a similar manner. Furthermore, measurement of phospholipid fractions content indicated that PQS could reduce the conversion of phosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidylcholine in Ox-LDL. Functional studies demonstrated that PQS-pretreated Ox-LDL was less potent than untreated Ox-LDL at impairing endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat aortic rings. In conclusion, our results suggest that PQS has antioxidant properties and that reduction of LDL oxidation by PQS may provide a protective effect against the detrimental actions of Ox-LDL.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More