Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

14th International Conference on Biopharma and Biotherapeutics

From Fri, 25. October 2019 Until Sat, 26. October 2019

World Conference on Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Clinical Research

From Wed, 27. November 2019 Until Thu, 28. November 2019

15th Annual Congress on Pharmacology and Toxicology

From Mon, 2. December 2019 Until Tue, 3. December 2019

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine

From Mon, 24. February 2020 Until Tue, 25. February 2020

21st Interntaional Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems

From Wed, 11. March 2020 Until Thu, 12. March 2020

Antioxidant activity and radioprotective effects against chromosomal damage induced in vivo by X-rays of flavan-3-ols (Procyanidins) from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera): comparative study versus other phenolic and organic compounds.


Castillo J, Benavente-Garcia O




J Agric Food Chem


The quantitative distribution of several flavan-3-ols was determined using HPLC in a grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract (GSE) of four cultivars grown in the region of Murcia. Polymer >/= C(4) units made up the largest group of procyanidins in the GSE (90.92%, expressed as HPLC % area). The antioxidant activity of GSE and other reference compounds was investigated by measuring their ability to scavenge the ABTS(*)(+) radical cation (TEAC). The most effective compounds were, in order: GSE > rutin > (+)-catechin > diosmin >/= ascorbic acid. The radioprotective effects of GSE and other reference compounds were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity, any reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) being evaluated in the bone marrow of mouse exposed to X-rays. The most effective compounds were, in order: GSE > rutin > dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) > ascorbic acid > 6- n-propyl-2-thiouracil-6c (PTU) > diosmin. The higher ABTS(*)(+) scavenging capacity and anticlastogenic activity of GSE can be explained, structurally, by the high number of conjugated structures between the catechol groups in the B-rings and the 3-OH free groups of the polymeric polyphenolic skeleton and, in addition, by the stability of the aroxyl flavonoid radical generated in the above processes.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More