Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

113th MOH-AMM Scientific Meeting 2019

From Tue, 27. August 2019 Until Thu, 29. August 2019

14 th World Congress on Pharmacology and Toxicology

From Wed, 11. September 2019 Until Thu, 12. September 2019

25th International Coneference on Advanced Clinical Research and Clinical Trials

From Mon, 16. September 2019 Until Tue, 17. September 2019

17th World Congress on Drug Formualtion & Drug Delivery

From Wed, 25. September 2019 Until Thu, 26. September 2019

19th World Congress on Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences

From Mon, 14. October 2019 Until Tue, 15. October 2019

An in-vitro study of ginsenoside Rb1-induced teratogenicity using a whole rat embryo culture model.


Chan LY




Hum Reprod


BACKGROUND: Ginseng is a commonly used herbal medicine worldwide. However, there is limited information regarding its effects on the developing embryo. METHODS: The effect of ginsenoside on the developing embryo during the critical period of organogenesis was investigated using a whole rat embryo culture model. Embryos were exposed to various concentrations of ginsenoside Rb1 and scored for growth and differentiation at the end of the culture period. RESULTS: Median total morphological scores in embryos exposed to 30 µg/ml of ginsenoside Rb1 was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that in control embryos (35 versus 45). Morphological scores for flexion, forelimb and hindlimb were also significantly reduced. The median total morphological scores further decreased to 28 when the concentration of ginsenoside Rb1 was increased to 50 µg/ml. At this concentration, the embryonic crown–rump length and somite number were also significantly reduced compared with control embryos (2.8 versus 3.0 mm and 16.0 versus 21.0, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study has demonstrated that ginsenoside exerts direct teratogenic effects on rat embryos. Until more is known about the effects of ginsenoside in women of reproductive age, we suggest its use should be treated with caution.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More