Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

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Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

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Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

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How Milk Thistle interacts with Medications metabolized by the CYP-3A4 isoenzyme system

Interaction type: Interactions

Interaction rating: Potential/Theoritical

Some studies have reported that milk thistle can affect the way that the liver breaks down certain medications. This may alter the effects of these medications and possibly the dose needed for treatment. Use with caution. (1) (2) (3)


  1. View Abstract: Beckmann-Knopp S, Rietbrock S, Weyhenmeyer R, et al. Inhibitory Effects of Silibinin on Cytochrome P-450 Enzymes in Human Liver Microsomes. Pharmacol Toxicol. Jun2000;86(6):250-6.
  2. View Abstract: Venkataramanan R, Ramachandran V, Komoroski BJ, et al. Milk Thistle, a Herbal Supplement, Decreases the Activity of CYP3A4 and Uridine Diphosphoglucuronosyl Transferase in Human Hepatocyte Cultures. Drug Metab Dispos. Nov2000;28(11):1270-3.
  3. View Abstract: Zhao J, et al. Tissue Distribution of Silibinin, the Major Active Constituent of Silymarin, in Mice and Its Association with Enhancement of Phase II Enzymes: Implications in Cancer Chemoprevention. Carcinogenesis. Nov1999;20(11):2101-8.

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Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

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