Articles

Selayak Hitam

Plant Part Used

Leaves, roots of the plant

Active Constituents

Goniothalamin, Acetogenin, 5-hydroxy-7-phenylhepta-2,6-dienoic acid d-lactone, 6-styryl-2-pyrone, goniodiol-7-monoacetate.

Introduction

G. macrophyllus is a shrub growing 3 to 5 meters high and usually has only one main stem. The leaves are coriaceous, large without stipules and alternate. They have a characteristic and diagnostically important ‘granular’ appearance abaxially, due to the immersed tertiary and lower order veins. (1) The blades are oblong-lanceolate acute or acuminate, base sub-acute or round, with several secondary nerves and slightly prominent beneath. Petiole is long and stout. Its flowers are large, green and slightly supra-axillary or pendulous from branches below the leaves. Sepals are broadly ovate, long, acute and connate at the base. The petals are coriaceous, the outer ones are oblong lanceolate, acute and long, while the inner ones are half as long, ovate acuminate with ciliate edges. There are usually several stamens. The fruit is globular, obovoid-ovoid with glabrous ripe carpels.

G. macrophyllus is widely found in the Malaysian Peninsula, Sabah and Sarawak. It is also found throughout Thailand, Borneo, Java and Sumatra. It usually grows at the riverbanks or wet sands and hill slopes, but always close to the river. It usually grows in the flatlands below the altitude of 700 meters. (2)

Dosage Info

Dosage Range

No information is available.

Most Common Dosage

No information is available.

Standardization

No standard marker reported.

Toxicities & Precautions

General

No toxicities have been reported when taken as traditional medicine. Safety in young children, patients with severe liver or kidney disease has not been established.

Side Effects

G. macrophyllus has not been clinically studied in humans. Thus, no side effects have been reported.

Pregnancy/ Breast Feeding

G. macrophyllus may have abortifacient and teratogenic effects. (3) , (4) , (5) Although a similar effect has yet to be clinically proven in humans, G. macrophyllus should not be taken during pregnancy or by women who are trying to conceive.

Age Limitations

Safety in young children and the elderly has not been established.

Pharmacology

Abortifacient
G. macrophyllus and its major constituent goniothalamin oxide showed a dose-related embryotoxic effect and thus, was responsible for its abortifacient effects. Results obtained from in vitro experiments on isolated uterus preparation from both pregnant and non-pregnant rats and in vitro experiments on uterus contractions in rats in situ, showed that the extract lacks oxytocic effect. It has been concluded that the alleged abortifacient property is not mediated through oxytocin or oxytocic-like effect. However, teratogenic effects were evident in the mice on high doses. (6) The teratogenicity may be due to the cytotoxic effects of goniothalamin. This was found by a study using extracts from the stem barks of G. macrophyllus on KB cells. Hexane extracts were found to give 100% toxicity at a concentration of 50 mcg/ml abd 93% at 10 mcg/ml. (7)

Anti-malarial properties
G. macrophyllus has shown good activity against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Fractions of the crude extract obtained by column chromatography showed 30% to 50% inhibition of beta haematin via the haem polymerization inhibitory assay (HPIA). This activity was similar to that observed with artemisinin. The extract appears to inhibit the polymerization of haematin into haemozoin. (8)

Hypertension
G. macrophyllus has been used to treat hypertension in Malaysian folk medicine. However, no information is available in terms of dosing or studies regarding its use in hypertensive patients.

Anti-inflammatory activity
G. macrophyllus has been used to treat swelling in Malaysian folk medicine. However, no information is available in terms of dosing or studies regarding its use as an inflammatory agent.

Post-partum well-being
G. macrophyllus has been used to invigorate women after childbirth. However, no information is available in terms of dosing or studies regarding its use. (9)

Reported Uses

  • Abortifacient,
  • common cold,
  • fever,
  • malarial,
  • hypertension,
  • post-partum well-being,
  • swelling

 

Read More

  1) Botanical Info

  2) Safety

References

  1. Saunders MKR. A synopsis of Goniothalamus species (Annonaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia, with a description of a new species. Botanical J of Linnean Society. 2003;142:321-39.
  2. Mat-Salleh K, Latiff A. Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. 2002:114-116.
  3. Dzulkifli Abdul Razak, Gan EK, Musa Mohamad, Razak Hj, Lajis dan Sam TW. Pharmacological evaluation of aqueous root extract of Selayak hitam II: Teratogenic and possible abortifacient effect. Med J Malaysia. 1984;39(1):48-51.
  4. Soepadmo E, Goh SH, Wong WH, Din L, Chuah CH. Malaysian Traditional Medicine. Proceedings of the Seminar on Malaysian Traditional Medicine. Kuala Lumpur. 1999:1-6.
  5. Hamid A, Hadi A, Khalijah Awang, Sevenet T. Cytoxicity of Goniothalamus macrophyllus extracts. 8th National Seminar and UNESCO Regional Workshop on Natural Products. 1991:57.
  6. Dzulkifli Abdul Razak, Gan EK, Musa Mohamad, Razak Hj, Lajis dan Sam TW. Pharmacological evaluation of aqueous root extract of Selayak hitam II: Teratogenic and possible abortifacient effect. Med J Malaysia. 1984;39(1):48-51.
  7. Hamid A, Hadi A, Khalijah Awang, Sevenet T. Cytoxicity of Goniothalamus macrophyllus extracts. 8th National Seminar and UNESCO Regional Workshop on Natural Products. 1991:57.
  8. Siti Najila MJ, Noor Rain A, Mohamad Kamel AG, et al. The Anti-Malarial Activity Of Plant Extracts: Elucidation of Its Mechanism of Action. International Conference On Traditional/Complimentary Medicine. Kuala Lumpur. 2002:40-41.
  9. Christophe Wiart, ed Wong F. Medicinal Plants of Southeast Asia. 13-14.