Bai Jie Ze

Semen Sinapis Albae, White Mustard Seed

Dosage

Decoction 3-10g, or pill or powder.

Toxicity

LD50 (benzyl/abdominal injection): 76-107mg/kg (mice), 68mg/kg (hamsters), 72mg/kg (rats). LD50 (Benzyl/oral): 134mg/kg (mice), 81mg (hamsters), 128mg/kg (rats). (1)

Chemical Composition

Glucosinolate; Sinalbin; Sinapine; Arginine; Lysine; Histidine; Sinigrin; Myrocin; Sinapic acid; Erucic acid; Eicosenoic acid; Oleic acid; Linoleic acid; Linolenic acid; Palmitic acid; Arachidic acid; Behenic acid; 4-hydroxy benzoylcholine; 4-hydroxy benzylamine; Benzyl thiocyanate; Methyl isothiocyanate; Isopropyl isothiocyanate; Butyl isothiocyanate; Secondary butyl isothiocyanate; Allyl isothiocyanate; Butene-3 isothiocyanate; Amylene-4 isothiocyanate; Phenyl isothiocyanate; Benzyl isothiocyanate; Phenylethyl isothiocyanate; 3-methylpropyl isothiocyanate. (2) , (3)

Precautions

Patients suffering from lingering cough due to deficiency of the lung, hyperactivity of fire, and yin deficiency should avoid taking this herb. When Bai Jie Zi oil or Bai Jie Zi plaster is applied to the skin for too long or at an excessively high concentration, it can cause effervesce or even suppuration. Bai Jie Zi oil has a pronounced stimulatory effect on the mucosa: dripped into the eyes of rabbits, 15% solution of Bai Jie Zi will cause chemosis; taken orally at large dosages, Bai Jie Zi oil will cause vomiting and stimulation to the gastraintestinal tract. (4) Reported cases of adverse effects include: One case of rash, (5) one case of allergic reaction, (6) two cases of dermatitis, and one case of hermatosepsis resulting in death. (7)

Pharmacology

Antiseptic effects

Benzyl isothiocyanate has a wide range of antibiotic effects on yeast, 20 species of fungi, and many species of bacteria. Infusion of Bai Jie Zi has varying degrees of antibiotic effects on Trichophyton violaceum, Achoiron schoenleini, and other bactieria. Aglycone mustard oil produced by hydrolyzation of Sinigrin also has bactericidal effects. (8)

Emetic Effects

Bai Jie Zi powder increases the secretion of saliva and the activity of amylase. At small dosages, Bai Jie Zi powder can stimulate gastric mucosa to increase the secretion of gastric juice and pancreatic juice, while at large dosages, it can rapidly cause vomiting. (9)

Promoting the secretion of digestive juice

At small dosages, Bai Jie Zi powder can increase the secretion of gastric juice and pancreatic juice, and sometimes alleviate intractable hiccups.

Expectorant effects

Hydrolysate of sinalbin can stimulate gastric mucosa and reflectively cause the increase in bronchial secretion. (10)

Regulating blood pressure

Administered to rabbits by IV injection, physiological saline-based extract of Bai Jie Zi can tend to temporarily raise the blood pressure slightly, and then lower it. It has also been known to accelerate breathing. (11)

Anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrhea effects

Experiments show that sinapine has an inhibitory effect on dimethyl benzene-induced auricular hematoma in mice and histamine-induced increase in capillary permeability in the skin of mice. Sinapine can also reduce the number of incidences of diarrhea in mice caused by castor oil (Oleum Ricini) and senna leaf (Folium Cassiae). This effect is dosage-dependent. Furthermore, sinapine has a slight and nondosage-dependent effect on the gastrointestinal peristalsis in mice, indicating that counteracting inflammation is the principal mechanism by which sinapine's anti-diarrhea effect is achieved. (12)

References

  1. Mei Quan Xi, et al (ed). Modern TCM Pharmacology. China: TCM Press; 1998:10.
  2. Editorial Committee of Chinese Materia Medica. State Drug Administration of China. Chinese Materia Medica. Shanghai: Science and Techonology Press; 1998.
  3. Mei Quan Xi, et al (ed). Modern TCM Pharmacology. China: TCM Press; 1998:10.
  4. Mei Quan Xi, et al (ed). Modern TCM Pharmacology. China: TCM Press; 1998:10.
  5. Ni Shu Fa. Journal of Integrated Medicine. 1986;6(1):25.
  6. Xu Zhi Xia. Shandong Journal of TCM. 1988;7(1):25.
  7. Zhang Jia Mei. Hubei Journal of TCM. 1990;(3):21.
  8. Mei Quan Xi, et al (ed). Modern TCM Pharmacology. China: TCM Press; 1998:10.
  9. Mei Quan Xi, et al (ed). Modern TCM Pharmacology. China: TCM Press; 1998:10.
  10. Shun Zheng Hua (ed). Pharmacy. People's Health Press; 1991.
  11. Ma Qing Jun (ed). Modern Research and Clinical Application in Common Chinese Herbs. Tianjin: Science Technology Translation Press; 1995.
  12. Zhang Ming Fa, et al. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1996;12(1):29.