Cang Zhu

Atractylodes Lanceae Rhizoma, Atractylodes

Dosage

Decoction, 3-9g.

Toxicity

Smoking mice and rats with an incense made from Cang Zhu and argyi leaves for 0.5-2 hours does not lead to abnormal outward appearances or pathologic changes. No adverse effects are experienced by any of 4000+ healthy people who have slept for 30 consecutive days in rooms where a coil of incense made from Cang Zhu and argyi leaves is burned throughout the night.

Chemical Composition

(-maaliene; a, d-Guaiene; Chamigrene; Caryophyllene; Elemene; Humulene; Selinene; Patchoulene; 1,9-aristolodiene; Guaiol; Elemol; Atractylon; 4(-ethanonaphthalene; Atractylodinol; Acetyl atractylodinol; (-bisabolol; Atractylodin; Hinesol; (- eudesmol; Furaldehyde; 3b-acetoxyatractylon; 3b-hydroxyatractylon; Butenolide B; Tryptophane; 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-glucosyloxy; Selina- 4(14),7(11)-diene- 8 one; ( 2-carene,1,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-2,5,5-trimethyl-2H-2; ( 2- (1,4a-dimethyl-3-glucosyloxy-2-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydronaphthalen-7-yl)- isopropanol glucoside; ( 2-(8-methyl-2,8,9-trihydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-bicyclo[5.3.0]decan-7-yl)isopropanol glucoside; ( 2-(8-methyl-2,8-dihydroxy-9-oxo-2-hydroxymethyl-bicyclo[5.3.0]decan-7-yl) isopropanol glucoside; ( 2-(1,4a-dimethyl-2,3-dihydoxydecahydroxynaphthalen-7-yl) isopropanol glucoside. (1)

Inorganic Chemicals

Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sn, Sr, V, Zn, Fe, P, Al, Zr, Ti, Mg, Ca

Precautions

Contraindications: interior heat syndromes due to yin-deficiency, and hyperhidrosis due to qi-deficiency.

Pharmacology

Preventing ulcers

N-butyl alcohol-based extract of Cang Zhu can significantly counteract gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid, ligation of pylorus, alcohol, and indomethacin. This effect of Cang Zhu does not extend to stress and reserpine-induced gastric ulcers, however. At 0.18g/kg, the extract can also significantly increase the prostaglandin E2 level (P

Analgesic effects

Body torsion and heat-induced pain tests show that Cang Zhu has a significant analgesic effect. (2) , (3)

Anti-arrhythmic effects

N-butyl alcohol-based extract of Guan Cang Zhu can significantly raise the effective dosage of aconitine for inducing ventricular arrhythmia in rats. Experiments on barium chloride-induced bi-directional ventricular arrhythmia show that the extract can significantly reduce the number of rats suffering from the modeled arrhythmia, postpone the occurrence of arrythmia, and shorten its duration. (4)

Effects on Bacillus dysenteriae F13

In-vitro tests on Cang Zhu's effect of eliminating the drug-resistant plasmids of Bacillus dysenteriae F13 show that it has a 0.8% elimination rate against TC+SM+AP-resistant plasmids and one of 46% against SM-resistant plasmids. (5)

Anti-diarrhea effects

Cang Zhu can inhibit both small intestinal and large intestinal diarrhea induced by castor oil or senna leaf. It can also inhibit the propulsive movement of India ink in the gastrointestinal tract. (6)

Anti-anoxia effects

Experiments show that acetone-based extract of Cang Zhu can prolong mice's survival time from KCN-induced anoxia. Further research finds that (-eudesmol, an active component of Cang Zhu, is responsible for its anti-anoxia effect. (7)

Effects on smooth muscles

Cang Zhu decoction can increase the tension of rats' stomach smooth muscle strips (isolated from both the fundus and the body of the stomach). This effect of Cang Zhu appears to be dose-dependent, and to varying degrees, can be blocked by atropine, hexamethonium, and isoptin. (8)

Effects of promoting stomach functions

Rats of modeled dampness have the following symptoms: lethargy, lack of appetite, loose stool, loss of weight, decrease in serum gastrin, and slugish gastrointestinal propulsive movement, etc. After being treated with Cang Zhu and 7 other dampness-removing aromatic herbs for 5 consecutive days, they show varying degrees of improvement in the physical signs. Further tests show that the gastrin level is raised, the gastrointestinal propulsive movement quickened, and the activity of gastric mucosal SOD heightened. (9) , (10) A related study shows that at 3g/kg and 10g/kg, duodenum administration of 70% alcohol-based extract of Cang Zhu at 3g/kg and 10g/kg promotes bile secretion in rats. (11)

Effects on diarrhea due to spleen deficiency

Administered to mice with senna leaf-induced spleen deficiency, Cang Zhu can increase the body weight, inhibit the propulsive movement of the small intestine, increase the content of Zn and Fe, and decrease that of Cu in the serum. It can also counteract hydrochloric acid-induced gastritis and inhibit pyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcers in rats, increase the pH value of the gastric fluids, and inhibit the activity of pepsin. (12) , (13) , (14)

Anti-inflammatory effects

Cang Zhu can counteract xylene-induced auricular swelling, carrageenin-induced foot swelling, and acetic acid-induced increase in abdominal capillary permeability. (15)

Anti-thrombotic and anticoagulant effects

Duodenum administration of 70% alcohol-based extract of Bei Cang Zhu at 3g/kg and 10g/kg can prolong the coagulation time and kaolin partial thromboplastin time in rats. (16)

References

  1. Editorial Committee of Chinese Materia Medica. State Drug Administration of China. Chinese Materia Medica. Shanghai: Science and Technology Press; 1998.
  2. Zhang Ming Fa, et al. Journal of Shizhen Medicine. 1999;10(1):1-3.
  3. Zhang Ming Fa, et al. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1996;12(4):1-4.
  4. Wu Zhen Jiu, et al. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1996;12(5):26-29.
  5. Yu Jun, et al. Journal of Bethune Medical University. 1996;22(1):19-20.
  6. Zhang Ming Fa, et al. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1997;13(5):2-5.
  7. Li Yu Hao, et al. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Material. 1991;14(6):41-43.
  8. Li Wei, et al. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1999;15(6):29-30.
  9. Qiu Sai Hong, et al. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1997;13(2):1-4.
  10. Qiu Sai Hong, et al. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1995;11(4):24-27.
  11. Zhang Ming Fa, et al. Journal of Shizhen Medicine. 1999;10(1):1-3.
  12. Xie Lu. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Research. 1992;(2):59-60.
  13. Xie Lu. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1992;8(4):25-26, 12.
  14. Jin Chuan Shan, et al. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1999;24(10):597-599.
  15. Zhang Ming Fa, et al. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1998;14(6):12-16.
  16. Zhang Ming Fa, et al. Journal of Shizhen Medicine. 1999;10(1):1-3.