Huang Qi

Astragali Radix, Astragalus Root

Dosage

Decoction: 10-15g, large dosages can use up to 30-60g.

Toxicity

LD50 (mice/abdominal injection/herb decoction): 40 ± 5g/kg. (1)

Chemical Composition

Astragaloside I, II, IV; Soyasaponin I; Formononetin; Calycosin; Isomucronulatol; Palmitic acid; Linoleic acid; Linolenic acid; Coriolic acid; Daucosterol; b-sitosterol; Lupeol; Lupenone; Lariciresinol; Syringaresinol; Asparagine; g-aminokutyric acid; Astraglalan I, II, III; AH-1, -2; Amon-S; 3,9-di-O-methylnissolin; Calycosin-7-O-b-D-glucoside; 7-O-methylisomucronulatol; 3-hydro-2-methylpyridine; Mucronulatol-7-O-glucoside; Isimucronulatol-7-O-glucoside; 5’-hdroxy-isomuronulatol-2’,5’-glucoside; Isomucronulatol-7-2’-di-O-glucoside; 2’-hydroxy-3’,4’-dimethoxyisoflavane-7-O-b-D-glucoside; 9, 10-dimethoxypterocarpan-3-O-b-D-glucoside; 7, 2’-dihydroxy-3’,4’-dimethylisoflavane-7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside; 3-O-b-D-xylopyranosyl-25-O-b-D-glucopyranosylcycfoastragenol; Dimethy-4,4’-dimethoxy-5, 6’,5’,6’-dimethylene-dioxybiphenyl-2,2’-dicarboxylate. (2)

Inorganic Chemicals

Ca, P, Mg, Fe.

Pharmacology

Effects on immunity

Huang Qi from can enhance mice’s humoral and cellular immune functions. Astraglalan can enhance the phagocytic activity of mice’s abdominal macrophage, and increase the number of their macrophagocytes. It can also increase PHA-induced in-vivo lymphocyte transformation rate. Astragaloside has a limited stimulatory effect on immunity and humoral immunity. Astraglalan can increase mice’s spleen size, and promote the proliferation of their intrasplenic cells, and promote anti-body synthesis. (3) FAM has a stimulatory effect on the immunity of mice with low immunity and can regulate their immune function. (4)

Diuretic effect

Administered by hypodermic injection to rats, or by IV to dogs under anesthesia, the water decoction of Huang Qi at 0.5g/kg has a significant diuretic effect. The water decoction of Huang Qi at 0.2g/kg also has a diuretic effect on healthy humans. (5)

Effects on the heart and blood vessels

Administered to rats with spontaneous hypertension, Huang Qi can control the rise of their blood pressure. Huang Qi can also lower the blood pressure of cats, dogs, and rats under anesthesia. One study has used Huang Qi injection to treat 14 cases of heart failure due to qi deficiency, and reported increases in cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke output, and stroke index. Experiments on animals further show that Huang Qi has a positive cardiac effect, it can effectively protect the activity of 5’-necliotidase, increase coronary blood flow, decrease coronary circulation resistance and troponin-T release, and generally help with postmyocardial infarction recovery. (6) , (7) , (8)

Ant-inflammatory and anti-infectious effects

Experiments show that Huang Qi has a protective effect on virus-infected cells, can counteract carrageenin-induced swelling in mice’s hind feet, and inhibit increase in rats’ capillary permeability induced by histamine and 5-HT. (9) , (10)

Effects on the circulatory system

Huang Qi has a corrective and stimulatory effect on the transformability of pathologically defective or damaged red blood cells. For red blood cells that have been incubated in vitro for a extended period of time, Huang Qi can help retain their transformability. (11)

Anti-aging and anti-stress effects

Huang Qi can improve the memory of aged mice, enhance the activity of cerebral and liver tissue SOD, and decrease the liver MDA level. (12) Fed to mice at the dosage of 50g/kg, the water decoction of Huang Qi can increase the oxyproline hydroxyproline level in skin tissue, increase the weight of adrenal glands, and improve their tolerance of oxygen deprivation (13)

Anti-neoplastic effect

Huang Qi can significantly improve the immunity of mice with solid tumor. (14) Furthermore, Huang Qi has an anti-neoplastic effect on GNM cells, (15) promotes the proliferation of thymocytes in mice with tumors, and inhibits S180 solid tumors. (16)

Effects on the kidney

Huang Qi can increase the albumin level in the plasma, decrease output of urinary protein, increase muscle protein, which in turn help provide the necessary amino acids, and improve the dysfunctional protein metabolism in glomerulopathy. This effect of Huang Qi can effectively prevent glomerular sclerosis. (17) Moreover, administered to mice with experimental diabetes, Huang Qi has a protective effect on their kidneys. (18)

References

  1. Modern TCM Pharmacology. Tianjin: Science and Technology Press; 1997.
  2. Editorial Committee of Chinese Materia Medica. State Drug Administration of China. Chinese Materia Medica. Shanghai: Science and Techonology Press; 1998.
  3. Modern TCM Pharmacology. Tianjin: Science and Technology Press; 1997.
  4. Jiao Yan, et al. China Journal of Integrated Medicine. 1999;19(6):356-358.
  5. Modern TCM Pharmacology. Tianjin: Science and Technology Press; 1997.
  6. Modern TCM Pharmacology. Tianjin: Science and Technology Press; 1997.
  7. Xu Shi An, et al. China Journal of Pharmacy. 1999;34(10)663-665.
  8. Luo Xin Ping, et al. China Journal of Pathology and Physiology. 1999;15(7):639-643.
  9. Modern TCM Pharmacology. Tianjin: Science and Technology Press; 1997.
  10. Liu Gong Xin, et al. China Journal of Pathology and Physiology. 1999;15(7):591-593.
  11. Modern TCM Pharmacology. Tianjin: Science and Technology Press; 1997.
  12. Jing Ruo Min, et al. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1999;24(10):619-621.
  13. Cheng Hai Hua, et al. Qinghai Journal of Medicine. 1999;29(10)18-19.
  14. Ying Zi Zhong, et al. Journal of Shizhen Medicine. 1999;10(10):732-733.
  15. Liu Hui. Journal of Stomatology. 1999;19(2):60-61.
  16. Shi Ren Bing. Journal of Beijing University of TCM. 1999;22(2):63-64.
  17. Zhou Qin. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1999;30(5):386-388.
  18. Shi Jun Hua, et al. China Journal of TCM Science and Technology. 1999;15(4):32-34.