Jiao Gu Lan

Gynostemma Rhizoma, Gynostemma

Toxicity

LD50 (gynosides/mice): 860mg/kg (abdominal injection); 2826mg/kg (oral administration). (1) , (2)

Chemical Composition

Gynoside; Rutin; Ombuoside; Malonic Acid. (3) , (4) , (5)

Pharmacology

Keeping blood vessel walls from thickening

Jiao Gu Lan can effectively suppress increase in the number of cells in blood vessel walls, and reduce the rate of DNA and protein syntheses, thereby keeping blood cell walls form thickening. (6) , (7)

Counteracting liver fibrosis

Gynosides are observed to counteract schistosomial liver fibrosis.[fn fnid="12166] (8)

Inhibiting bacteria

Experiments show that Jiao Gu Lan has an inhibiting effect on a number of bacteria. In particular, it is observed to kill Staphylococcus aureus. (9)

Inhibiting platelet aggregation

Gypenosides can counteract HMWD-induced decrease in thrombus formation time, in blood coagulation time and in prothrombin time (PT). It can also lengthen kaolin partial thromboplastin time (KPTT). (10)

Lowering lipid levels and delaying the aging process

Experiments studying the effects of gynosides on atherosclerosis and lipid peroxidation show that gynosides can reduce the formation of plaque in aorta walls, protect blood vessel walls’ ability to synthesize and release nitrous oxide, and prevent Ca2+ overload in aorta walls due to prolonged infliction of hypercholesterolemia. (11) , (12)

Counteracting renal fibrosis

Gynosides can improve the function of the kidney, counteract plasma ET and TNF, and counteract renal fibrosis. (13)

Counteracting myocardial ischemia

Gynosides protects the ischemic heart by reducing the potential for “calcium overload" and exaltation. (14) , (15)

Counteracting serum endotheliotoxin

Gynosides can significantly counteract ET in rats with chronic renal insufficiency, thereby improving the function of their kidneys. (16)

Inhibiting tumor growth

Gynosides can inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in patients of chronic granulocytic leukemia. This effect, which increases with dosage, works synergistically with a similar effect of cytarabine and homoharringtonine. (17) Furthermore, gynosides inhibit the proliferation of metastatic cancer cells, and cause damage to chondriosome and rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in cancer cells. (18) , (19)

Tranquilizing/inducing sleep

Research shows that gynosaponin SH-6 can inhibit spontaneous activity in mice, increase the sleep rate of under-dose pentobarbital sodium, and prolong its sleep time when administered in full dose. (20)

Regulating immunity

Jiao Gu Lan can increase the levels of CD3 and CD4 in patients with chronic renal failure and boost their energy. (21) They can enhance the activity of liver superoxide dismutase in aged mice, (22) significantly promote canavaline A-induced proliferation of T-lymphocytes and lipopolysaccharide-induced proliferation of B-lymphocytes in mice, and promote the production of IL-1 by abdominal macrophage and the production of IL-2 by splenic cells in rats. (23)

Counteracting stress

Gynosides can significantly increase mice’s tolerance for oxygen deprivation and low temperature, and significantly lengthen the time they can swim under duress. (24)

Therapeutic effects on ulcers

NCTC11637 HP is known to significantly delay rats’ recovery from acetic acid-induced ulcers. By inhibiting the production of IL-8, MDA, and OH in inflammatory reactions, and by enhancing the acitivity of PGE2 and SOD, thereby protecting the gastric mucosa, Jiao Gu Lan exerts a significant therapeutic effect on experimental ulcers in rats. (25)

Analgesic effect

Gypenosides have an analgesic effect, an effect likely to have been achieved through the central nervous system by lowering the level of PGE. dude

References

  1. Chi Shu Jun, et al. Journal of Canceration, Aberration, and Mutation. 1997;9(6):372.
  2. Xue Fu Zhi, et al. China Journal of TCM Information. 1998;5(6):17-18.
  3. Zhang Guo An, et al. Journal of Chinese Patent Medicine Research. 1986;(3):30-31.
  4. Fang Zha Pu. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1989;14(11):36.
  5. Zhou He Ping. Journal of Pharmacy. 1988;23(12):720.
  6. Hou Xiao Ping, et al. China Journal of Emergency Medicine for Life-threatening Conditions. 1998;10(3):177-178.
  7. Hou Xiao Ping, et al. Journal of Navy General Hospital. 1998;14(2):74-77.
  8. Zeng Xiao Li. Journal of Chinese Patent Medicine. 1999;21(6):308-310.
  9. Zhang Xiao Li, et al. Journal of Pharmacy of Western China. 1999;14(5-6):335-337.
  10. Huang Hong Lin, et al. China Journal of Arteriosclerosis. 1998;6(4):287-291.
  11. Li Xi, et al. China Journal of TCM Science and Technology. 1999;6(2):91-92.
  12. Sun Wan Sen, et al. China Journal of TCM Science and Technology. 1998;5(1):21-22.
  13. Zhao Ying, et al. Chinese Pharmacology Bulletin. 1998;14(1):60-62.
  14. Zhang Fang, et al. Journal of Shandong Medical University. 1999;37(1):31-33.
  15. Sun Wan Sen, et al. China Journal of Emergency Medicine for Life-threatening Conditions. 1998;10(5):268-269.
  16. Xie Zhi Zhong, et al. Journal of Hengyang Medical College. 1998;26(1):10-12.
  17. Yan Jun Feng, et al. Journal of Clinical Stomatology. 1998;14(3):140-141.
  18. Liang Jun, et al. Journal of Pharmacy Practice. 1999;17(5):279-281.
  19. Feng Bing Hong, et al. Journal of New Chinese Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology. 1998;9(2):87-89.
  20. Lin Wei Ming, et al. Journal of Gansu College of TCM. 1998;15(3):18-19.
  21. Lin Xiao Ming, et al. China Journal of Geriatrics. 1998;18(6):364-365.
  22. Wang Bin, et al. Journal of New Chinese Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology. 1999;10(1):36-37.
  23. He Jian Wei, et al. Shaanxi Journal of TCM. 1998;19(11):523-524.
  24. Zhang Qing Bei, et al. Chinese Pharmacology Bulletin. 1999;15(3):225-228.
  25. Cheng Xiao Yue, et al. Hunan Journal of TCM. 1999;5(10):34-35.