Qin Jiao

Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix, Gentian Root

Dosage

5-10g, decoction.

Toxicity

LD50 (mice/oral): 18.96 ( 1.02g/kg (water-based extract); 17.38 ( 0.53g/kg (alcohol-based extract). (1) LD50 (mice/gentianine): 480mg/kg (oral); 300mg/kg (abdominal injection); 250-300mg/kg (IV injection). (2)

Chemical Composition

Gentianine; Gentianidine; Gentianal; Gentiopicroside; Swertiamarin; Montanic acid; Methyl montanate; Roburic acid; (-amyrin; (-sitosterol; (-sitosterol-(-D-glucoside; Sweroside; Gentialutine; Isogentialutine; Gentiatibetine.

Pharmacology

Anti-inflammatory effect

Qin Jiao's neutral alcohol infusion can inhibit egg white-induced edema in rats' toes, and accelerate the recovery process. (3) It has been reported that administered to rats by abdominal injection at 90mg/kg, gentianine can significantly check egg white-induced increase in capillary permeability (4) , and inhibit formaldehyde-induced subacute inflammation in rats' toes; administered for 10 consecutive days, gentianine can bring about a full recovery - an effect comparable to that of 200mg/kg of sodium salicylate. (5)

Analgesic effect

Hot plate experiments show that gentianine has a significant analgesic effect. Moreover, it has been reported that in terms of its analgesic effect, Qin Jiao works synergistically with Tian Xian Zi, Yan Hu Suo, and Cao Wu, etc. (6)

Anti-allergic and antihistamine effects

Experiments show that administered by abdominal injection at 90mg/kg, gentianine can significantly lessen egg white-induced shock symptoms in rabbits. Similarly, it can lessen histamine spray-induced asthma and convulsion. (7)

Effects on the heart and blood pressure

Administered by IV injection at 5-20 mg/kg, gentianine can lower blood pressure and heart rate in anesthetic rats and dogs. This effect increases with dosage but lasts only 2-10 minutes. (8)

Other effects

Administered orally or by abdominal injection, gentianine can decrease spontaneous activity in mice, and increase pentobarbital sodium's sedative effect on mice and rats. When the dosage is increased to 304mg/kg, however, it causes a central excitation that ends with paralysis and finally death. (9) , (10) Administered by abdominal injection at high dosages (180-250mg/kg), gentianine can increase the blood sugar level in rats and mice. (11) Furthermore, Co-( ray radiation at 5kGy does not afftect Qin Jiao's anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and blood pressure-lowering effects. When the radiation level is increased to 5kGy, however, Qin Jiao's antiinflammatory effect disappears. (12)

References

  1. Cui Jing Rong, et al. Journal of Beijing Medical University. 1992;24(3):225.
  2. Liu Geng Tao, et al. Journal of Physiology. 1959;23(3):203.
  3. Ji Xiu Juan, et al. Journal of Physiology. 1959;23(2):151.
  4. Liu Geng Tao, et al. Journal of Physiology. 1959;23(3):203.
  5. Song Zhen Yu, et al. Journal of Physiology. 1958;22(3):201.
  6. Liu Geng Tao, et al. Journal of Physiology. 1959;23(3):203.
  7. Liu Geng Tao, et al. Journal of Physiology. 1959;23(3):203.
  8. Liu Geng Tao, et al. Journal of Physiology. 1959;23(3):203.
  9. Liu Geng Tao, et al. Journal of Physiology. 1959;23(3):203.
  10. Chen Xian Yu. Journal of Physiology. 1959;23(4):311.
  11. Xu Li Na, et al. Journal of Pharmacy. 1965;12(6):357.
  12. Yang Yi Jun, et al. Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials. 1994;17(1):31.