Sheng Jiang

Zingiberis Rhizoma, Ginger

Dosage

Decoction: 3-10g.

Toxicity

1. LD50 (mice/herb oil): 1.23ml/kg (abdominal injection), 3.45ml/kg (gastric perfusion). (1)
2. LD50 (mice/shogaol): 50.9mg/kg (IV injection), 109mg/kg (abdominal injection), 687mg/kg (gastric perfusion); LD50 (mice/gingerol): 25.5mg/kg (IV injection), 581mg/kg (abdominal injection), 250mg/kg (gastric perfusion). (2)

Chemical Composition

(-zingiberene; Camphene; (-ocimene; (-bergamotene; (-farnesene; Myrcene; (-ninene; (-curcumene; (-phellandrene; (-farnesene; (-bisabolene; (-santatol; Zingiberol; Perillaldehyde; Neral; 6-geranial; 2-caraneol; 3-caraneol; 2-borneol; Citral; 7-menthene; Isofenchyl alcohol; Galanolactone; 3-gingerol; 4-giginerol; 5-gingerol; 6-gingerol; 8-gingerol; 10-gingerol; 12-gingerol; 6-gingediol; 4-gingediol; 8-gingediol; 10-gingediol; 6-methyl gingediol; 4-gingedi acetate; 6-gingedi acetate; 6-methyl gingediacetate; 6-gingerdione; 10-gingerdione; 6-dehyddrogingerdione; 10-dehyddrogingerdione; 6-acetylgingerol; 6-shogaol; 6-furanogermenone; 2-pipecolic acid; Glutamic acid; Aspartic acid; Serine; 1, 3, 3-trimethyl tricyclo [2.2.2]ociane; 1-(1, 5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl benzene. (3)

Precautions

Contraindications: yin deficiency with interior heat, and excessive heat syndromes.

Over-dosage can cause nosebleed. (4) Consumption of fresh ginger may cause acute onset of appendicitis. (5)

Pharmacology

Anti-inflammatory effects

Administered to mice by gastric perfusion, 0.25-0.4ml/kg of Sheng Jiang oil can significantly inhibit histamine- or acetic acid-induced capillary permeability increase. It can also significantly inhibit dimethylbenzene-induced auricular inflammation in mice and egg white-induced toe swelling in rats. Furthermore, it can significantly inhibit granulation tissue proliferation, and decrease the weight of the thymus gland and increase that of the adrenaline gland rats. (6)

Liver-protective and cholagogic effects

Sheng Jiang oil has a therapeutic effect on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. It can significantly lower the serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) level. It can prevent carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice, and decrease sulfobromophthalein sodium (BSP) retention. To a limited degree, it also protects damaged liver cells of rats and mice. (7) Duodenum administration of acetone-based extract (500mg/kg), 6-gingerol (100mg/kg), or 8-ginerol (100mg/kg) of Sheng Jiang has a significant cholagogic effect on rats. (8)

Central-inhibitory effects

Administered to mice, Sheng Jiang oil can significantly inhibit the subjects' spontaneous activity, lengthen their pentobarbital sodium-induced sleep time, and counteract cardiazal-induced convulsion and pain. Administered to rats, it can counteract yeast-induced increase in temperature. (9)

Anti-oxidation effects

Sheng Jiang can significantly eliminate the superoxide anions generated by the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system and the hydroxide free radicals produced by ultra-violate radiation on H2O2. (10) Concentrated solution of Sheng Jiang can significantly enhance the activity of the superoxide dismutase in mice's liver, and decrease the level of lipid peroxide (LPO). (11) Sheng Jiang can effectively protect the activity of peroxide hydrogenase and Ca2+-ATPase, significantly decrease the level of lactic acid, and increase the peroxidase hydrogenase- and Ca2+-ATPase-to-lactic acid ratios. (12)

Anti-allergic effects

Administered to guinea pigs by gastric perfusion (0.2ml/kg), Sheng Jiang oil has a protective effect on allergic bronchi convulsion. It also has a dose-dependent effect of counteracting histamine- or acetelcholine-induced ileum contraction. (13)

Counteracting platelet

Alcohol-based extract of Sheng Jiang can decrease the viscosity of fibrinogen in rats, and inhibit adenosine diphosphate or ethanol-induced platelet aggregation. (14)

Other effects

Sheng Jiang can counteract pathogen and aging, (15) stop vomiting, (16) and inhibit thrombus formation. (17)

References

  1. Zhang Zhu Xin, et al. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1988;19(9):407-409.
  2. Chi Tian Zheng Shu, et al. Foreign Medicine, vol. of TCM. 1981;(2):53.
  3. Editorial Committee of Chinese Materia Medica. State Drug Administration of China. Chinese Materia Medica. Shanghai: Science and Technology Press; 1998.
  4. Xiong Cai Liang. Hubei Journal of TCM. 1995;17(1):18.
  5. Zhang Ruo Fu, et al. Journal of Shizhen Medicinal Material Research. 1998;9(2):109.
  6. Zhang Zhu Xin, et al. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1989;20(12):544, 545-546.
  7. Zhang Zhu Xin, et al. Journal of Chinese Patent Medicine. 1989;11(8):25-26.
  8. Li Yu Ping. Foreign Medicine, vol. of TCM. 1986;8(1):24.
  9. Zhang Zhu Xin, et al. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1988;19(9):407-409.
  10. Cao Zhao Feng, et al. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1993;18(12):750-751.
  11. Liu Jin Ling, et al. Henan Journal of TCM. 1996;16(3):156.
  12. He Li Ya, et al. Journal of Medical Theory and Application. 1999;12(1):7-9.
  13. Zhang Zhu Xin, et al. Journal of Chinese Patent Medicine. 1992;14(11):30-31.
  14. Chen Kun Nan, et al. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1997;13(5):30-31.
  15. Peng Ping Jian. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1992;17(6): 370-373.
  16. Xi Ye Shi Lang. Journal of Nanjing College of TCM. 1990;6(2):60.
  17. Gao Ben Bo, et al. Chinese Pharmacology Bulletin. 1996;12(3):53.