Zhu Ling

Polyporus umbellatus (Grifola umbellatus), Polyporus Fungus

Dosage

Internal administration, 10 to 15g of the herb are taken in a decoction and administrated orally.

5:1 concentrated extract: 2-3 grams/day.

Toxicity

Carnogenic test: negative (PPS extract/mice/hypodermic or intraperitoneal injection, 0.5, 50mg/kg daily for 6 consecutive months).
Teratogenic test: negative (PPS/mice/200mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection). (1)

Chemical Composition

Polyporusdextran I; Polyporusteron A, B, C, D, E, F, G; Ergosta-4, 6, 8(14), 22-tetraen-3-one; 25-deoxymakisterone A; 25-deoxy-24(28)-dehydromakisterone A; Ergosta-7, 22-dien-3-one; Ergosta-7, 22-dien-3-ol; Ergosta-5, 7, 22-trien-3-ol; 5a, 8a-epidioxyergosta-6, 22-dien-3-ol; a-hydroxytetracosanoic acid; 3, 4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde; Axungia; Isoleucine; Leucine; Aspartic acid; D-mannose; D-galactose; D-glucose. (2) , (3) , (4) , (5) (6) , (7)

Inorganic Chemicals

It contains trace elements, including calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), copper (Cu), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and sulfur (S).

Precautions

Zhu Ling is contraindicated for interior dryness (lest causing injury to yin-fluids). Reported adverse effects of Zhu Ling include skin rashes, dermatitis, transient tinnitus, colporrhagia, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), arthritis, and arthralgia. (8) , (9) , (10) , (11) , (12) , (13) , (14) , (15)

Pharmacology

Inhibitory effect on tumors

Zhu Ling can reduce the occurrence rate of B-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder tumors in rats, the number of tumors per rat, the tumor diameter, and the tumor malignity. (16) Experiments show that toxin-L extracted from the ascitic fluid of patients with primary hepatoma can cause notable fat hydrolysis in vitro, inhibit the ingestion functions of rats, decrease the serum zinc levels, and increase the serum copper levels. It has been established that toxin-L can produce neoplastic cachexia, and that polyporus polysaccharides can inhibit toxin-L’s neoplastic cachexia-promoting activities. (17)

Enhancing immunity

Experiments on mice have shown that polyporus polysaccharides can enhance Concanavalin A and bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced proliferation reactions of splenocytes, increase the number of specific antibody-secreting cells, enhance heterotypic splenocyte-induced hypersensitivity reactions, and enhance the killing capacity of splenotoxic T lymphocytes. (18) Experiments also have shown that polyporus polysaccharides can enhance the phagocytic and bactericidal functions of the human neutrophilic granulocytes, (19) and that it has a dose-dependent and interferon-g (TFN-g)-synergistic effects that promote the production of nitric oxide by the mice’s macrophage. (20)

Anti-mutagenic and antidotal effects

When administered to mice by intraperitoneal injection at 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 4.0mg/kg, polyporus polysaccharides have inhibited cyclophosphamide-induced micronucleus formation with inhibition rates of 17.34%, 25.22%, 37.03%, 42.51%, and 55.12%, respectively. (21) Polyporus polysaccharides can also inhibit a cyclophosphamide-induced increase in the MNR of bone marrow PCE (perchloroethylene), and inhibit cyclophosphamide-induced decreases in white and red blood cell counts and hemalbumin (Hb). (22) When used in combination with cisplatin, polyporus polysaccharides can enhance the latter’s inhibitory effect on transplanted S180, Lewis, and H22 tumors in mice, as well as reducing cisplatin’s side effects (e.g., causing a drop in white blood count, atrophy of immune organs, and a reduction in the macrophage’s phagocytic function). (23)

Liver-protecting effect

Experiments have shown that polyporus polysaccharides can lessen carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)- and D-aminogalactose-induced damage to liver tissues, and promote recovery from these damages. It has also promoted the generation of the hepatitis B surface antibody (HbsAb) in guinea pigs and Assamese macaques, and enhanced of the ability of celiac macrophage in normal and injured mice livers to release H2O2. (24) , (25) When administered to mice by intraperitoneal injection at 0.25mg per mouse, polyporus polysaccharides have shown to have a moderate inhibitory effect on the expression of hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) in the serum of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-transgenic mice. (26)

References

  1. Li Min Min. A survey of research on Zhu Ling polysaccharides. Journal of Research Reference Material for Chinese Medicine. 1984;(4):1.
  2. Da Ze Xiao Chen. Chemical composition of Zhu Ling. Foreign Medicine. 1991;13(3):47.
  3. Editorial Committee of Chinese Materia Medica, State Drug Administration of China. Chinese Materia Medica. Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 1998.
  4. Li Zhong You. Effects of herbal extract on hair growth and separation of Zhu Ling active components. Foreign Medicine. 1995;17(2):17-18.
  5. Guo Shun Xing, et al. Determination of sugar levels in the sclerotium of wild and cultivated Zhu Ling of various ages. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1992;17(2):77-80, 126.
  6. Guo Shun Xing, et al. An analysis of trace elements and amino acids in the sclerotium of wild and cultivated Zhu Ling of various ages. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1993;18(4):204-206.
  7. Fang Li Xia. 2 cases of skin rashes caused by allergic reaction to Zhu Ling polysaccharides. Anhui Journal of Medicine. 1995;16(4):51.
  8. Fan Guo Bin, et al. Allergic reactions to Zhu Ling polysaccharides. China Journal of New Herbal Medicine. 1995;4(6):44.
  9. Yi Hong Yi, et al. One case of dermatitis caused by Zhu Ling polysaccharides. Journal of Infectious Diseases and Drugs. 1995;4(3):134.
  10. Jiao Yun Xia, One case of allergic reaction and transient tinnitus caused by Zhu Ling polysaccharides. Journal of Infectious Diseases and Drugs. 1997;32(7):396.
  11. Zhang Zhi Ping, et al. One case of colporrhagia caused by intramuscular injection of Zhu Ling polysaccharides. Journal of New Medicine and Clinical Application. 1995;14(3):183-184.
  12. Dong Xian Ming, et al. One case of systemic lupus erythematosus caused by Zhu Ling polysaccharides. Northwestern Journal of Pharmacy. 1998;13(2):63.
  13. Fan Guo Bin. One case of severe arthralgia caused by Zhu Ling polysaccharide. Journal of Modern Applied Pharmacy. 1996;13(2):63.
  14. Leng Zuan You, et al. One case of arthritis caused by Zhu Ling polysaccharides. China Journal of New Herbal Medicine. 1998;7(1):78.
  15. Yang De An, et al. Zhu Ling’s effects on bladder tumor. China Journal of External Medicine. 1991;29(6):393-395.
  16. Wu Geng Shu, et al. Zhu Ling polysaccharide’s inhibition on toxin L-induced neoplastic cachexia. China Journal of Integrated Medicine. 1997;17(4):232-233.
  17. Gao Mei, et al. Zhu Ling polysaccharide’s effect on mice’s immune functions. China Journal of Immunology. 1991;7(3):185-187.
  18. Zhang Li Ping, et al. The effect of selected Chinese herbal extracts on the antibacterial function of human PMN phagocytes. China Journal of Microbiology and Immunology. 1994;(4):227-279.
  19. Hou Gan, et al. Zhu Ling polysaccharide’s effect on carbon monoxide formation in mice’s abdominal macrophagocytes. China Journal of Geriatrics. 2000;20(4):233-235.
  20. Zhang Hui, et al. The anti-mutagenic effect of Zhu Ling polysaccharide. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine. 1993;15(3):29.
  21. Bo Xin, et al. The effects of Sha Shen, Sha Ren, Zhu Ling, E Zhu, and Ji Xue Teng on cyclophosphamide’s side effects. China Journal of TCM Science and Technology. 1997;4(3):153-154, 175.
  22. Wang Yan, et al. Zhu Ling polysaccharide’s synergistic effect with cisplatin. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Research. 1996;(5):60-61.
  23. Yan Shu Chang, et al. Zhu Ling polysaccharide’s effect on chronic viral hepatitis. Journal of Integrated Medicine. 1988;8(3):141-143.
  24. Zhang Ying Hua, et al. Effects of Zhu Ling polysaccharides on mononuclear macrophagocytes in mice with liver injuries. Journal of Integrated Medicine. 1991;11(4):225-226, 198.
  25. Guo Chang Zhan, et al. Zhu Ling polysaccharides’ effects on HBs Ag expression in HBV transgenic mice. China Journal of Experimental Clinical Immunology. 1999;10(6):368-370.