Xiang Fu

cyperus rotundus, Nutgrass

Dosage

Oral administration: 5 to10g for decoction, pills, or powder.
External application: it is powdered or applied warmly.
5:1 concentrated extracts: 1 to 2g.

Toxicity

The LD50 of intra-abdominal injection for Xiang Fu volatile oil is 0.297±0.019ml/kg. (1)

Chemical Composition

Glucose; Fructose; Starch; a-and b-cyperone; b-selinene; b-pinene; Camphene; 1,8-cineole; Limonene; Pcymene; Cyperene; Copaene; Selinatriene; Copadiene; Patchoulenone; Cyperol; a-and b-rotunol; Isocyperol; Epoxyguaine; Cyperone; Rotundone; Kobusone; Isokobusone; 4a,5a-oxidoeudesm-ll-en-3a-ol; Sugetriol; b-elemene; Caryophyllene; a-humulene; d-cadinene; Calamenene; Cyperotundone. (2) , (3) , (4) , (5)

Inorganic Chemicals

It also contains trace elements, such as Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, B, etc.

Precautions

Xiang Fu is contraindicated for patients with qi deficiency without stasis, yin deficiency, and blood-heat.

Pharmacology

Cholagogic and liver protective effects

A Xiang Fu decoction, when administered to normal rats via duodenum at 30g (raw herb)/kg, it showed a strong cholagogic effect. It can promote bile secretion, and increase bile flow. At the same time, it can protect the hepatocyte function in a rat liver injured by CCl4. (6)

Inhibition effect on central nerve system

Xiang Fu’s volatile oil, when given by intraperitoneal injection at 0.03ml/kg, has the synergistic hypnotic effects of a pentobarbital dosage below the normal threshold for mice. When given intravenously at 0.050mg/kg and 0.075ml/kg, it produces an anesthetic effect in normal rabbits, with the mean anesthesia time of 9.0 and 15.0. An intravenous injection of Xiang Fu volatile oil, administered to rabbits at a dose below the normal threshold value of 0.035ml/kg, can prolong the anesthesia time of scopolamine. When administered by intraperitoneal injection at 0.01ml/kg, it can decrease the normal body temperature of rats, with peak effects taking place at 30 minutes after initial administration. (7)

Blood pressure lowering effects

Xiang Fu’s essential oil, 0.1ml/kg administered intravenously to anesthetized cats had blood pressure lowering effects. After 8 minutes, the blood pressure was restored to its normal level. (8)

Promoting Bowel Movements

Xiang Fu in a 20% water decoction can shorten defecation duration in mice, while increasing the frequency. When cooked with vinegar, Xiang fu can shorten defecation time even more (P

Others

Xiang Fu volatile oil, at low concentrations, can inhibit the contraction in the intestinal tract of rabbits. (9)

References

  1. Liu Guo Qing, et al. Pharmacology research on Xiang Fu volatile oil. Journal of University of Pharmacology of China. 1989;20(1):48-50.
  2. Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 1998.
  3. Zheng Guo Wang, et al. Various processing methods’ effects on Chinese herbs’ trace elements. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Material. 1992;15(5):24-27.
  4. Duan Yu Feng, et al. Preliminary research on trace elements’ detection and extraction rate. China Journal of Pharmacy. 1993;28(7):396-398.
  5. Jin Bao Liang, et al. Comparison on trace elements between Xiang Fu and processed Xiang Fu. Journal of Trace Elements and Health Research. 1998;15(3):47-48.
  6. Sui Yan Hua, et al. Comparison on rat’s bile secretion effect of Xiang Fu, Qing Pi, Ci Li, Yin Cheng, and Xi Nan Zhang Ya Cai. Henan Journal of TCM. 1993;13(1):19-24,44.
  7. Liu Guo Qing, et al. Pharmacology research on Xiang Fu volatile oil. Journal of University of Pharmacology of China. 1989;20(1):48-50.
  8. Liu Guo Qing, et al. Pharmacology research on Xiang Fu volatile oil. Journal of University of Pharmacology of China. 1989;20(1):48-50.
  9. Liu Guo Qing, et al. Pharmacology research on Xiang Fu volatile oil. Journal of University of Pharmacology of China. 1989;20(1):48-50.