Qing Dai

Indigo Naturalis, Natural Indigo

Dosage

For oral usage, it is decocted with 2-5g, wrapped up, or powdered,1.5-6g each time.

Toxicity

One-time administration of indigo at 32g/kg to mice by endogastric infusion does not result in death; neither does one-time administration of indirubin at 25g/kg. The median lethal dose (LD50), when administrated by stomach, did not cause animal death. Their LD 50 (mice/intraperitoneal injection): 2.20 ± 0.23g/kg (indigo), and 1.11 ± 0.23g/kg (indirubin). (1) , (2) , (3) , (4)

Chemical Composition

Indirubin; Indigo; Isoindigo; Laccerol; Indican; Isatan B; Tryptanthrine; Qingdainone; N-nonacosane; N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine; b-sitosterol. (5) , (6) , (7) , (8) , (9)

Precautions

Patients suffering from deficiency cold in the spleen and stomach should use with caution.

Pharmacology

Anti-tumor effects

Qing Dai’s component, Indirubin, has anti-tumor effects. The tween suspension of indirubin was administered to rats with tumor (200mg/kg.d) for 6-10 consecutive days by the following three methods: subcutaneous injection, intraperitoneal injection, and by endogastric infusion. The inhibition rates on solid carcinoma in W256 rats for the above methods of administration were 47%-52%, 50-58%, and 55.7%, respectively. Subcutaneously injected at 200mg/kg, twice daily, indirubin can prolong the survival time of ascitic type W256 rats. Administered by endogastric infusion at 500mg/kg daily for 9-10 consecutive days, it can inhibit mouse Lewis lung cancer with the inhibition rate of 43%. It also has a moderate inhibitory effect on mammary cancer and sarcoma S180 in mice. There are also reports that Qing Dai can prolong by about 20% the survival time of lymphocytic leukemia L1210. (10) , (11) , (12) , (13)

Antibacterial effects

Qing Dai decoction has inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus, anthrax bacillus, Shiga’s bacillus and Vibrio comma, etc. Tryptanthrin, an active component of Qing Dai, has strong inhibitory effects on seven kinds of bacteria: Microsporum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Microsporum gypseum, purple trichophyton, red trichophyton, Trichophyton gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, etc. (14)

Counteracting hepatic injury

Administered to mice by endogastric infusion stomach at 0.3-3g/kg daily for 8 consecutive days, Qing Dai suspension can protect the subjects from CCl4-induced hepatic injuries. (15)

References

  1. Zen Qing Tian, et al. The pharmacology of indirubin. Bulletin of Chinese Materia Medica. 1979;10(11):531.
  2. Institute of Hematology. Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Internal research papers on Qing Dai.
  3. Sha Jing Mei, et al. On indirubin. Pharmacy Bulletin. 1983;18(12):731.
  4. Oncology Group. Sichuan Chinese Materia Medica Institute. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1981;10(2):27.
  5. Chen Di Hua, et al. The chemical composition of Qing Dai. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 15(12):534.
  6. Wu Lian Ming, et al. The active component of Qing Dai that treats chronic granular leukemia (I). Bulletin of Chinese Materia Medica. 1978;(4):150.
  7. Zou Ji Chun, et al. Trace elements of Qing Dai (I). Journal of Pharmacy. 1985;20(1):45.
  8. Herb Information Center. State Drug Administration of China. A Handbook of Herb Active Components . Beijing: People’s Health Press; 1986.
  9. Li Qin Hua. The chemical composition of Qing Dai. Journal of Botany. 1987;29(1):67.
  10. Zen Qing Tian, et al. The pharmacology of indirubin. Bulletin of Chinese Materia Medica. 1979;10(11):531.
  11. Ji Xiu Juan, et al. The anti-neoplastic effect and toxicity of synthetic indirubin. Journal of Pharmacy. 1981;16(2):146.
  12. Institute of Hematology. Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Internal research papers on Qing Dai.
  13. Sha Jing Mei, et al. On indirubin. Pharmacy Bulletin. 1983;18(12):731.
  14. Li Qing Hua, et al. Qing Dai’s antibacterial components. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1983;4(10):8.
  15. Cheng Du College of TCM Hospital. Chinese Materia Medica Bulletin of Sichuan. 1979;(4):12.