Suan Zao Ren

Zizyphi Spinosi Semen, Zizyphus

Dosage

Decoction: 6-15g; grounded powder, 3-5g per day.

Toxicity

LD50 (mice/peritoneal injection/formula decoction): 14.3 ± 2.0g/kg. (1)

Chemical Composition

Zizyphusine; Caaverine; Amphibine D; Sanjoinenine; Lysicamin; Juzirine; Betulinic acid; Betulin; Daucosterol; Jujuboside A, B; Ceanothic acid; Alphitolic acid; Threonine; Valine; Methionine; Leucine; Isoleucine; Lysine; Phenylalanine; Ferulic acid; N-methylasimilobine; 5-hydroxy-6-methoxynoraphine; Cyclic adenosine 3’, 5’-monophosphate; Sanjoinine A, B, D-F, G1, G2, Ia, Ib, K. (2) , (3) , (4) , (5) , (6) , (7) , (8) , (9) , (10) , (11) , (12) , (13)

Inorganic Chemicals

K, Na, Ca, Zn, Fe, Co, Mn, etc.

Precautions

1. Exercise caution when prescribing this formula to patients of excessive syndromes and patients of loose stool.

2. Reported adverse effects include allergic reaction, fever with aversion to cold, joint pain, and cold sweat. (14) , (15) , (16)

Pharmacology

Effects on the central nervous system

Suan Zao Ren has significant sedative and hypnotic effects. Suan Zao Ren oil emulsion and Suan Zao Ren total flavone are shown to inhibit autonomous activities in mice. Combined use of Suan Zao Ren oil emulsion and pentobarbital on mice can lengthen the subjects’ sleep time. Similarly, combined use of Suan Zao Ren total flavone and pentobarbital inhibits the central nervous system, and can counteract benzedrine-induced central excitation. Suan Zao Ren’s central inhibitory effect appears to be dosage-dependent. (17) , (18)

Protective effects on cardiac cells

Experiments show that at 33mg/ml, total zizyphus saponin can significantly decrease cardiac cells’ release of lactic dehydrogenase induced by deoxyglucose, chloropromazine, or mytomycin C. (19)

Anti-neoplastic effects

Administered i.g. at 1.40 ml/kg or 0.35 ml/kg, Suan Zao Ren oil can lengthen the survival time of cancerous mice by a factor of 50%. It can inhibit weight increase in the late stages of cancerous mice’s lives. (20)

Enhancing immunity

Experiments show that administered to mice at 0.1g/kg for 16 consecutive days, Suan Zao Ren can enhance the subjects’ humoral and cell-mediated immune functions. Furthermore, Suan Zao Ren has a protective effect against radiation damage in mice. (21) Administered to mice at 5g/kg for 20 consecutive days, alcohol-based extract of Suan Zao Ren can counteract cyclophosphamide-induced suppression of delayed hypersensitivity reaction in mice. (22)

Lowering blood lipid level and counteracting platelet aggregation

Administered to Japanese male quails of modeled high cholesterol levels, both Suan Zao oil at 2.5ml/kg and Suan Zao extract at 20g/kg can significantly decrease the subjects’ levels of total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. It can also significantly decrease the liver’s fatty degeneration. denaturation of liver lipid. Administered i.g. at 2.5ml/kg per day for 5 consecutive days, Suan Zao oil can significantly inhibit blood platelet aggregation in rats. (23)

Counteracting peroxydation

Suan Zao Ren has a protective effect against endotoxin-induced decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) in feverish mice. (24)

Protective effects against ischemic cerebral damages

Total zizyphus saponin can decrease the content of water and MDA in ischemic cerebral tissues. It increases the activity of superoxide dismutase, creatine phophatase, and lactic dehydrogenase in cerebral tissues, decreases the content of lactic acid, and ameliorates damage to nerve cells. (25)

References

  1. Huang Hou Ping, et al. The tranquilizaing effect of Suan Zao Ren. Guizhou Journal of Medicine. 1982;(1):17.
  2. Editorial Committee of Chinese Materia Medica. State Drug Administration of China. Chinese Materia Medica. Shanghai: Science and Techonology Press; 1998.
  3. Ying Sheng Zhen, et al. Alkaloids of Suan Zao Ren. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1997;22(5):296-297.
  4. Zeng Lu, et al. The chemical composition of Suan Zao Ren. Journal of Botany. 1986;28(5):517.
  5. Zeng Lu, et al. The chemical composition of Suan Zao Ren (II). Journal of Pharmacy. 1987;22(2):114.
  6. Du Zhi Min, et al. Different sources of Suan Zao Ren: A comparison of the chemical composition. Journal of Guangdong College of Pharmacy. 1999;15(2):127-128.
  7. Yao Su Chen, et al. An amino acid analysis of Suan Zao Ren components effective for treating burns. Journal of Fourth Military Medical College. 1988;9(1):62-63.
  8. Zhang Zhao Rong, et al. Trace elements and amino acids of Suan Zao Ren from Shandong. Journal of Trace Elements and Health Research. 1997;14(3):29-30.
  9. Guo Sheng Min, et al. The extraction, isolation, and verification of ferulic acid from Suan Zao Ren. Northwestern Journal of Pharmacy. 1995;10(1):22-23.
  10. Hong Geng Xin, et al. Advances in Suan Zao Ren research. Traditional Chinese Medicine Bulletin. 1987;(8):51-531.
  11. Qiu Ming Ming, et al. Recent developments in Suan Zao Ren research. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Research. 1995;(4):60-62.
  12. Li Lan Fang, et al. The chemical composition of fatty oil of Suan Zao Ren. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Material. 1993;16(3):29-30.
  13. Wang Yong Shan, et al. Verifying phospholipid in Suan Zao Ren and Bu Gu Zhi with infrared spectrum. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine. 1992;14(11):34-35.
  14. Liu Jing Ju. One case of Suan Zao Ren-induced allergic reaction. Hebei Journal of Medicine. 1985;(5):33.
  15. Zhang Lu Gao, et al. Four cases of adverse effects resulted from use of Chinese herbs. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1989;14(2):116.
  16. Wang Lin, et al. One case of Suan Zao Ren overdose leading to cold sweat. Sichuan Journal of TCM. 1999;17(6):35.
  17. Zhao Qiu Xian, et al. The central inhibitory effect of Suan Zao Ren. Journal of Xi-An Medical University. 1995;16(4): 432-434.
  18. Guo Sheng Ming, et al. The central inhibitory effect of Suan Zao Ren total flavone. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Material. 1998;21(11):578-579.
  19. Chen Xing Jian et al. The protective effect of Suan Zao Ren total sapoin against cardiac cells. China Journal of Pharmacology. 1990;(2):153-155.
  20. Wang Qing Lian, et al. The effect of Suan Zao Ren oil on mice of ascitic tumors. Journal of Xi-An Medical University. 1995;16(3):295-297.
  21. Lang Xing Cai, et al. The effects of Suan Zao Ren on immunity and radiation damages of mice. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1991;16(6):366-368.
  22. Lang Xing Cai, et al. The effect of Suan Zao Ren on mice’s immunity. Traditional Chinese Medicine Bulletin. 1988;13(11):683-685.
  23. Wu Shu Xun, et al. Suan Zao Ren’s effects of lowering blood fat and inhibiting platelet aggregation. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1991;16(6):435-437.
  24. Peng Zhi Cong, et al. Suan Zao Ren’s protective effect against endotoxin-induced decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD). China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1995;20(6):369-370.
  25. Bai Xiao Ling, et al. Suan Zao Ren total saponin’s effect on ischemic brain damages and cerebral biochemical indicators in rats. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1996;20(6):369-370.